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Flashcards in Final Exam - Thursday Deck (42):
1

T. maritima lacks the genes necessary for the electron transport chain so how is it able to produce a proton motive force?

by running its ATPase in reverse or by a membrane-bound pyrophosphatase proton pump

2

From what source is it believed that T. maritima may have acquired up to 25% of its genome?
a) α-proteobacteria
b) Archaea
c) ε-proteobacteria
d) Aquificae

b) Archaea

3

Which of the following is true of T. maritima?
a) It grows optimally at 75°C
b) It was first isolated from freshwater sediment
c) It is able to fix nitrogen
d) It grows on inorganic compounds

c) It is able to fix nitrogen

4

Why is beta-lactamase important to Bacteroides fragilis in the presence of penicillin?
a. It prevents toxicity by buildup of penicillin in the cytoplasm.
b. It prevents DNA replication from being inhibited by penicillin.
c. It prevents important mRNA from being degraded by penicillin.
d. It prevents cell wall crosslinking from being inhibited by penicillin.

d. It prevents cell wall crosslinking from being inhibited by penicillin.

5

What is the benefit of RecA overexpression in Bacteroides fragilis?
a. It repairs oxidative DNA damage caused by metronidazole and confers resistance
b. It allows the cell to progress through S phase quicker and increases growth speed
c. It allows for more efficient homologous recombination and horizontal gene transfer
d. It repairs DNA thymine dimers that are constantly formed by sunlight

a. It repairs oxidative DNA damage caused by metronidazole and confers resistance

6

A commensal bacterium like Bacteroides fragilis:
a. Would cause disease after being introduced into the host through bad food
b. Would be passed from infected person to person by coughing
c. Would cause blood infection after being introduced by a parasite such as a mosquito
d. Would cause opportunistic infection by internal gut wounds

d. Would cause opportunistic infection by internal gut wounds

7

What disease does Borrelia burgdorferi cause?

Lyme disease

8

What morphology can Borrelia burgdorferi have during an infection?
a) Spirochetal
b) Round body
c) Microcolony
d) All of the above

d) All of the above

9

Which of the following amino acids is B. burgdorferi prototrophic for?
a) Glycine
b) Serine
c) Proline
d) A and B
e) All of the above

d) A and B

10

List three properties of the T. pallidum endoflagella.

- exist in periplasmic space
- corkscrew rotation
- acts as a virulence factor

11

Which of the following animals is used almost exclusively in laboratory setting when culturing T. pallidum?
a) Goat
b) Rabbit
c) Mice
d) Monkeys

b) Rabbit

12

Which of the following diseases is primarily caused by T. pallidum?
a) Lyme Disease
b) Anthrax
c) Leprosy
d) Syphilis

d) Syphilis

13

B. subtilis is an auxotroph for which amino acid?
a) tyrosine
b) arginine
c) lysine
d) cystine

b) arginine

14

Which of the following was the first Gram-positive bacterium to have its genome sequenced?
a) Escherichia coli
b) Staphylococcus aureus
c) Streptococcus mutans
d) Bacillus subtilis

d) Bacillus subtilis

15

B. subtilis has 10 different sigma factors. How many are present during sporulation?

7

16

Which of these diseases is NOT caused by a staph infection
a) Cellulitis
b) Impetigo
c) Meningitis
d) Sepsis

c) Meningitis

17

S. aureus produces which enzyme
a) Coagulase
b) Catalase
c) Oxidase
d) A and B
e) A and C

d) A and B

18

S. aureus is normally found
a) On skin
b) In intestines
c) In blood
d) stomach

a) On skin

19

What form of adherence does S. mutans employ to form biofilms on the surface of human teeth?
a) Glycocalyx
b) Peptidoglycan
c) Fimbriae
d) Proteins

a) Glycocalyx

20

The main microbe associated with dental caries formation is:
a. Lactobacillus acidophilus
b. Streptococcus mutans
c. Saccharomyces boulardii
d. Plasmodium falciparum

b. Streptococcus mutans

21

Dental caries are formed by the production of this compound:
a. Glycolic acid
b. Glucose
c. Lactose
d. Lactic acid

d. Lactic acid

22

Name one S. pyogenes virulence factor.

Hyaluronic capsule protects it from phagocytosis

23

Name one disease cause by S. pyogenes .

Scarlet Fever

24

Name one S. pyogenes electron acceptor.

Gold

25

What are the byproducts of a heterolactic fermentation?
a. Lactate and NAD+
b. Lactate and NADH
c. Ethanol, CO2, Lactate, and NAD+
d. Ethanol, CO2, Lactate, and NADH

c. Ethanol, CO2, Lactate, and NAD+

26

What two compounds are used by Lactobacillus plantarum as terminal electron acceptors?

- Oxygen
- Nitrate

27

Which ion does Lb plantarum use to scavenge for superoxide radicals in lieu of a superoxide dismutase?
a. Fe3+
b. Mn2+
c. Mg2+
d. Ca2+

b. Mn2+

28

What is the reason for the loss of function of M. pneumoniae?

- obligate pathogen
- only affects humans
- loss of function of many of the major pathways such as the TCA cycle and the electron transport chain.

29

What type of disease does M. pneumoniae cause?
a) Upper respiratory Infection
b) Abnormal pneumonia
c) Fever
d) All of the above

d) All of the above

30

What type of motility does M. pneumoniae have?
a) Twitching motility
b) No motility
c) Spiral motility
d) Gliding motility

d) Gliding motility

31

From what organism is the commercial product Botox initially isolated?
a) Camplyobacter jejune
b) Streptomyces bottropensis
c) Clostridium botulinum
d) Pasteurella multicoda

c) Clostridium botulinum

32

What enzyme does Clostridium botulinum produce to protect it from trace amounts of oxygen in the environment?

superoxide dismutase

33

What is the primary source of botulism infections in adults?
a) Open wounds
b) Food poisoning
c) Blood/organ transplants
d) Aerial transmission, such as sneezing

b) Food poisoning

34

Clostridium difficile’s new taxonomic name is
a) Peptidoclostridium difficile
b) Peptoclostridium difficile
c) Pepsinclostridium difficile
d) Peptobismolclostridium difficile

b) Peptoclostridium difficile

35

What class of enzyme are toxins A and B in P. diff?
A. Oxidoreductases
B. Ligases
C. Transferases
D. Isomerases

C. Transferases

36

What is the most commonly reported nosocomial pathogen in the US?

Peptoclostridium difficile

37

Mycobacterium tuberculosis can appear as _______ after staining.
a) Gram Positive
b) Acid-Fast
c) Gram Negative
d) All of the above

d) All of the above

38

Mycobacterium tuberculosis are ________ bacteria.
a) Anaerobic
b) Aerobic
c) Nitrogen-fixing
d) None of the above

b) Aerobic

39

Mycobacterium tuberculosis treatment requires?

Treatment requires multiple months, sometimes requiring multiple medications

40

What are the two nutrients needed by H. influenza for growth?

- hemin
- NAD+

41

Haemophilus influenza is usually found in:
A. Ocean water
B. The nasopharynx of humans
C. Soil samples near a water source
D. The intestinal tract of livestock

B. The nasopharynx of humans

42

What are some of the virulence factors of H. influenza?
A. Adhesins and encapsulation
B. Secreted proteases, exotoxin, and urease
C. Flagella and encapsulation
D. Pili and secreted phospholipases

A. Adhesins and encapsulation