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T. maritima lacks the genes necessary for the electron transport chain so how is it able to produce a proton motive force?

by running its ATPase in reverse or by a membrane-bound pyrophosphatase proton pump


From what source is it believed that T. maritima may have acquired up to 25% of its genome?
a) α-proteobacteria
b) Archaea
c) ε-proteobacteria
d) Aquificae

b) Archaea


Which of the following is true of T. maritima?
a) It grows optimally at 75°C
b) It was first isolated from freshwater sediment
c) It is able to fix nitrogen
d) It grows on inorganic compounds

c) It is able to fix nitrogen


Why is beta-lactamase important to Bacteroides fragilis in the presence of penicillin?
a. It prevents toxicity by buildup of penicillin in the cytoplasm.
b. It prevents DNA replication from being inhibited by penicillin.
c. It prevents important mRNA from being degraded by penicillin.
d. It prevents cell wall crosslinking from being inhibited by penicillin.

d. It prevents cell wall crosslinking from being inhibited by penicillin.


What is the benefit of RecA overexpression in Bacteroides fragilis?
a. It repairs oxidative DNA damage caused by metronidazole and confers resistance
b. It allows the cell to progress through S phase quicker and increases growth speed
c. It allows for more efficient homologous recombination and horizontal gene transfer
d. It repairs DNA thymine dimers that are constantly formed by sunlight

a. It repairs oxidative DNA damage caused by metronidazole and confers resistance


A commensal bacterium like Bacteroides fragilis:
a. Would cause disease after being introduced into the host through bad food
b. Would be passed from infected person to person by coughing
c. Would cause blood infection after being introduced by a parasite such as a mosquito
d. Would cause opportunistic infection by internal gut wounds

d. Would cause opportunistic infection by internal gut wounds


What disease does Borrelia burgdorferi cause?

Lyme disease


What morphology can Borrelia burgdorferi have during an infection?
a) Spirochetal
b) Round body
c) Microcolony
d) All of the above

d) All of the above


Which of the following amino acids is B. burgdorferi prototrophic for?
a) Glycine
b) Serine
c) Proline
d) A and B
e) All of the above

d) A and B


List three properties of the T. pallidum endoflagella.

- exist in periplasmic space
- corkscrew rotation
- acts as a virulence factor


Which of the following animals is used almost exclusively in laboratory setting when culturing T. pallidum?
a) Goat
b) Rabbit
c) Mice
d) Monkeys

b) Rabbit


Which of the following diseases is primarily caused by T. pallidum?
a) Lyme Disease
b) Anthrax
c) Leprosy
d) Syphilis

d) Syphilis


B. subtilis is an auxotroph for which amino acid?
a) tyrosine
b) arginine
c) lysine
d) cystine

b) arginine


Which of the following was the first Gram-positive bacterium to have its genome sequenced?
a) Escherichia coli
b) Staphylococcus aureus
c) Streptococcus mutans
d) Bacillus subtilis

d) Bacillus subtilis


B. subtilis has 10 different sigma factors. How many are present during sporulation?



Which of these diseases is NOT caused by a staph infection
a) Cellulitis
b) Impetigo
c) Meningitis
d) Sepsis

c) Meningitis


S. aureus produces which enzyme
a) Coagulase
b) Catalase
c) Oxidase
d) A and B
e) A and C

d) A and B


S. aureus is normally found
a) On skin
b) In intestines
c) In blood
d) stomach

a) On skin


What form of adherence does S. mutans employ to form biofilms on the surface of human teeth?
a) Glycocalyx
b) Peptidoglycan
c) Fimbriae
d) Proteins

a) Glycocalyx


The main microbe associated with dental caries formation is:
a. Lactobacillus acidophilus
b. Streptococcus mutans
c. Saccharomyces boulardii
d. Plasmodium falciparum

b. Streptococcus mutans


Dental caries are formed by the production of this compound:
a. Glycolic acid
b. Glucose
c. Lactose
d. Lactic acid

d. Lactic acid


Name one S. pyogenes virulence factor.

Hyaluronic capsule protects it from phagocytosis


Name one disease cause by S. pyogenes .

Scarlet Fever


Name one S. pyogenes electron acceptor.



What are the byproducts of a heterolactic fermentation?
a. Lactate and NAD+
b. Lactate and NADH
c. Ethanol, CO2, Lactate, and NAD+
d. Ethanol, CO2, Lactate, and NADH

c. Ethanol, CO2, Lactate, and NAD+


What two compounds are used by Lactobacillus plantarum as terminal electron acceptors?

- Oxygen
- Nitrate


Which ion does Lb plantarum use to scavenge for superoxide radicals in lieu of a superoxide dismutase?
a. Fe3+
b. Mn2+
c. Mg2+
d. Ca2+

b. Mn2+


What is the reason for the loss of function of M. pneumoniae?

- obligate pathogen
- only affects humans
- loss of function of many of the major pathways such as the TCA cycle and the electron transport chain.


What type of disease does M. pneumoniae cause?
a) Upper respiratory Infection
b) Abnormal pneumonia
c) Fever
d) All of the above

d) All of the above


What type of motility does M. pneumoniae have?
a) Twitching motility
b) No motility
c) Spiral motility
d) Gliding motility

d) Gliding motility


From what organism is the commercial product Botox initially isolated?
a) Camplyobacter jejune
b) Streptomyces bottropensis
c) Clostridium botulinum
d) Pasteurella multicoda

c) Clostridium botulinum


What enzyme does Clostridium botulinum produce to protect it from trace amounts of oxygen in the environment?

superoxide dismutase


What is the primary source of botulism infections in adults?
a) Open wounds
b) Food poisoning
c) Blood/organ transplants
d) Aerial transmission, such as sneezing

b) Food poisoning


Clostridium difficile’s new taxonomic name is
a) Peptidoclostridium difficile
b) Peptoclostridium difficile
c) Pepsinclostridium difficile
d) Peptobismolclostridium difficile

b) Peptoclostridium difficile


What class of enzyme are toxins A and B in P. diff?
A. Oxidoreductases
B. Ligases
C. Transferases
D. Isomerases

C. Transferases


What is the most commonly reported nosocomial pathogen in the US?

Peptoclostridium difficile


Mycobacterium tuberculosis can appear as _______ after staining.
a) Gram Positive
b) Acid-Fast
c) Gram Negative
d) All of the above

d) All of the above


Mycobacterium tuberculosis are ________ bacteria.
a) Anaerobic
b) Aerobic
c) Nitrogen-fixing
d) None of the above

b) Aerobic


Mycobacterium tuberculosis treatment requires?

Treatment requires multiple months, sometimes requiring multiple medications


What are the two nutrients needed by H. influenza for growth?

- hemin
- NAD+


Haemophilus influenza is usually found in:
A. Ocean water
B. The nasopharynx of humans
C. Soil samples near a water source
D. The intestinal tract of livestock

B. The nasopharynx of humans


What are some of the virulence factors of H. influenza?
A. Adhesins and encapsulation
B. Secreted proteases, exotoxin, and urease
C. Flagella and encapsulation
D. Pili and secreted phospholipases

A. Adhesins and encapsulation