Wooden Tongue in cattle
Prototheca is a
mainly infects bone
Lumpy jaw- actinmycosis bovis
Mycobacterium avian subs psuedotuberculosis
What are the 3 most common GI diseases in sheep and goats?
Sheep and goats
Edema Disease in pigs
Shiga toxin producing E. coli
Porcine Proliferative enteropathy
What bacteria is responsible for enterotoxemia in animals?
What is a very common GI disease in horses?
when horses are under stress, then they get this very easily
Potomac horse fever
foal pnenumonia, but can have severe lymphatdidis and gastrointerositis
gram negative clostridium
in rodents and sometimes in horses
What would you think about in dogs for a chronic hemorragic dirrahea vs actue hemorragic dirrahea
Prothecosis- chronic hemorragic dirrahea
Clostridial enteritis- Hemorrage acute diarrhea
When can you get Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile?
Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile: Antibiotic induced
diarrheas in horses and rabbits (lincomycin/clindamycin)
Clostridium perfringens (types A, B, C, D and E); Enterotoxemia
Salmonella (various serovars) in pigs, cattle, and horses can cause
Salmonella (various serovars) in pigs, cattle, and horses can cause chronic enteritis/ colitis
serovar that comes uncooked eggs- salmonella enteristis
Button shaped ulcers
Button shaped ulcers due to bacterial toxin induced vasculitis and thrombosis of vessels and focal infarcts
SALMONELLA or Bracyspira or classical swine fever
Potomac horse fever in horses
Potomac horse fever in horses
Equine monocytic ehrlichiosis,
Neorickettsia risticii infects epithelial cells, macrophages, monocytes Vectors;Snails and flies
Seasonal occurrence (May to September)
What is the target cell for Rickesetia?
Endothelium- that's why they hemorrage
Erlichia and Anaplasam
WBC are the targets
Salmon poisoning in dogs
Salmon poisoning in dogs
Fatal granulomatous enterocolitis in dogs and foxes
Ingestion salmon carrying fluke Nanophyetus salmincola infected with Neorickettsia helminthoeca
Necrosis of the Lymphoreticular system and hemorrhagic diarrhea
Rhodoccocus equi enterocolitis and mesenteric lymphadenitis in foals
Diagnosis of Enteric Disease
Enteric disease: Fecal sample for culture
Adequate amount of samples collected in a screw cap container and shipped to the lab under refrigeration conditions Biopsy and histopathology Fungal serology
Why can't you use a red top serum for fecal samples?
Fusobacterium necrophorum in cattle; liver abscess
What else can cause liver abscesses?
Tuberculosis in cattle; granuloma
Bacillary hemoglobinuria, Clostridium hemolyticum
Infectious necrotic hepatitis in cattle and cattle ; Black disease, Clostridium novyi(type B) Associated with liver fluke migration
foals and lab animals; liver abscess
What is the best samples to collect for salmonella in food animals?
Camylobactor's characteristic lesion?
Doughnut shaped lesions in the liver
ruminants; get infected sepeticemia and hepatitis
in very young calves: necrotizing hepatic necrosis
are UTI's more common in dogs or cats?
Diagnosis of urinary tract infections
Culture and urine analysis
Urine collection by cystocentesis, Catheterization , Midstream catch
If transportation is delayed plate in the clinic and send if there is growth
Send samples before the initiation of antibiotic therapy. If you already have mention that in the submission form
Interpretation of results
• Dogs;100,000 (105)CFU of bacteria (single species)/ ml of urine • Cats; >103
• Always compare results from urine analysis and culture
Leptospirosis; Lymphoplasmacytic tubulointerstitial nephritis(Serum chemistry indicating renal failure)
like to be in the renal tubules
sleepy foal disease
Clostridium perfringens type D
Pulpy kidney disease in sheep-Clostridium perfringens type D in enterotoxemia
White spotted kidney
White spotted kidney in calves interstitial nephritis following bacteremia and septicaemia(E.coli)
What is the best sample to send in the case of abortion?
fetal abomasal fluid
What are the two main pathogens suspected in Uterus; metritis, endometritis, pyometra?
Pyometra in dogs as a result of endometritis and metritis
• Cystic endometrial hyperplasia after estrus and growth of bacteria,
result in endometritis leading to pyometra • E.coli, Streptococcus
How would a dog with Brucellosis present?
-reproductive disorders in a female dog
-acute orhcitis in a male dog
-general illness and lymphadenopathy
-disconspondylitis or oseomyelitis
REMEMBER IT"S ZOONOTIC!
Brucella can cause
• conception failure
• (due to embryonic death)
• No interference with estrous cycle
• Orchitis and epidydymitis
• Scrotal dermatitis
• Scrotal enlargement or atrophy
Lymphadenomegaly Diskospondylitis Osteomyelitis
Wide range of ocular disease
Scrotal Dermatis is common indicator of....
Brucella in dogs
• Canine brucellosis is mainly transmitted during breeding.
• Nose and mouth contact with vaginal discharge from an infected female. This can occur while the female is in heat, after an abortion, or during whelping.
• Brucellosis may also be transmitted through semen or urine and can be shed by intact or neutered males for several years in cases of chronic infection.
• Puppies can become infected from their mother during pregnancy by way of the placenta.
What do you want to request/do when you get a canine brucellosis diganostic tests?
Serology is key! You want to make sure that you are NOT just testing for Brucella canis because dogs can also get Brucella suis which is from feral swine.
• A serum sample free of hemolysis
• Send overnight with ice packs
• Request for brucellosis testing
• Provide complete history
• Blood for culture( gold standard test) Serology Tests available
Indirect fluorescent antibody test Rapid slide agglutination test
Tube agglutination test
Agar gel immunodiffusion test
Treatment for Brucella
Expensive, as several weeks of antibiotic therapy are required
Relapse may occur
Spaying/neutering of the dog can reduce transmission risk
Treatment is especially difficult in male dogs as the prostate gland and testicle is chronically infected.
The only proven method for eradication in kennels is to test all dogs and eliminate the confirmed positives.
Tetracycline, Aminoglycosides, Fluoroquinolons
2-4 weeks durations
Brucella is a
faculatative intercellular gram negative bacteria- it infects macrophages
Public health considerations for Brucella
• Brucella suis strains: Highest virulence
• (Select Agent)
• B. canis: Low asymptomatic disease
Fever chills, fatigue, lymphadenomegaly, weight loss