Final, Test 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final, Test 4 Deck (103):

Which choice best describes a reasonable evolutionary mechanism for animal structures becoming better suited to specific functions?

C. Animals with mutations that give rise to effective structures will become more abundant

What is the driving force for evolution, as it pertains to “new” structures within populations?


Similar fusiform body shapes are seen in sharks, penguins and aquatic mammals because

C. The laws of physics constrain the shapes that are possible for aquatic animals that swim very fast.

Why have diverse animals such as sharks, and penguins evolved similar fusiform body shapes?


As body size increases in animals, there is

A. A decrease in the surface-to-volume ratio

Know the correlation between body size and surface-to-volume ratio.


Multicelluar organisms must keep their cells awash in an internal pond because

B. Cells need an aqueous medium for the exchange of nutrients, gases and wastes

4. Why do multicellular organisms need their cells to be in a liquid medium?


The body’s automatic tendency to maintain a constant internal environment is termed

C. Homeostasis

5. What is homeostasis?



B. Involves production of heat through metabolism

6. What is endothermy?


A female Burmese python incubation her eggs warms them using

E. Shivering thermogenesis

7. What is shivering thermogenesis. What animals employ this method of incubation?


Hibernation and estivation are both examples of

B. Torpor

8. What are examples of torpor?


An ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally-sized endotherm because

C. The ectotherm invests little energy in temperature regulation

9. Know how to tell if an animal is an endotherm or ectotherm.


Metabolism of specialized brown fat depots in certain animals is substantially increased during

D. Non-shivering thermogenesis

10. Know that fat has the highest energy output .


An animal that migrates great distances would obtain the greatest benefit form storing its energy as

E. Fats


Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?

A. Vitamin A


Know which vitamins are deadly at high amounts.

A, D, E K. Fat-soluble. Essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals.


What animals and or insects have a crop?

Earthworms, grasshoppers and birds. Used for temporary storage of food, food storage also for nestlings and production of crop milk


In which group of animals would you expect to find a relatively long cecum?

b. Herbivores

15. What animals have a long cecum?


Why are cattle able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of plant material?

E. They have cellulose—digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in chambers of their stomachs

16. How do cattle survive on plant material?


In which of the following would you expect to find an enlarged cecum?

a. Rabbits, horses, and herbivorous bears

17. Which animals have an enlarged cecum?


What is a gizzard?

Muscular stomach chamber that uses ingested pebbles to pulverize food, some food storage which chemical digestion that was begun in the proventriculus continues


Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body’s cells are likely to have which of the following?

b. A closed circulatory system

What does a circulatory system overcome?


Know the difference between large molluscs and small molluscs as it pertains to their circulatory system.

Unique in invertebrates is that circulatory systems in molluscs are open in species of small- sized molluscs and are closed in species of large-sized molluscs


Ruminants have how many chambers in their stomach?

Four chambers


In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body

b. Frog


Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?

C. Fishes

23. What is unique about the circulatory system in fish?


What organic materials are mammals able to digest and/or produce with the help of microorganisms?

Cellulose to simple sugars


What are the fat-soluble vitamins (yes again)?

A, D, E K


Which of the following is an example of countercurrent exchange?

A. The flow of water across the gills of the fish and that of blood within those gills

Where is countercurrent exchange evident?


Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize which of the following?

B. Diffusion

What is the benefit of countercurrent exchange?


Which of the following is a characteristic of both hemoglobin and hemocyanin?

C. Transports oxygen

What two things transport oxygen?


How does hemocyanin of arthropods and molluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammals?

C. Hemocyanin has protein couples to copper rather than iron

What is the difference between arthropod hemocyanin and mammalian hemoglobin?


Marine sea star was mistakenly placed in freshwater and it died. What is the most likely explanation for its death?

B. The sea star is hyperosmotic to the freshwater, and it could not osmoregulate

Why can’t salt-water organisms live in fresh water


Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body’s cells are likely to have which of the following?

b. A closed circulatory system.

Know what has open and closed circulatory systems.


How do birds live off of sea water?

Marine birds utilize their nasal glands to eliminate excess salt from the body. It is these organisms that make life at sea possible for species such as albatrosses. Similar salt glands provide the identical function in sea turtles and marine iguanas.


Unlike most bony fishes, sharks maintain body fluids that are isosmotic to sea water.. They are therefore considered by many to be osmoconformers because of the unusual way they maintain homeostasis. They osmoregulate by

C. Tolerating high urea concentrations that balance internal salt concentrations to sea water osmolarity.

How do sharks osmoregulate?


Where and from what compound(s) is urea produced?

A. Liver from NH3 and CO2


Which of the following is true of urea? It is

b. The primary nitrogenous waste product of humans.


What is the main nitrogenous waste excreted by birds?

D. Uric acid


Which of the following nitrogenous wastes requires hardly any water for its excretion

c. Uric Acid


Which of the following is true of ammonia?

b. It is soluble in water

Know that ammonia is soluble in water.


The advantage of excreting wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that

B. Urea is less toxic than ammonia

Which is less toxic: urea or ammonia?


Birds secrete uric acid as their nitrogenous waste because uric acid

a. Requires little water for nitrogenous waste disposal, which is conductive to the function of flight in terms of weight

Birds secrete what?


What nitrogenous waste requires hardly any water for excretion?

Uric acid


Which group possess excretory structures known as protonephridia

A. Flatworms

42. What are protonephridia?


Which group possesses excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules?

b. Insects (Malpighian tubule-frog too)

43. What are the Malpighian tubules?


Unlike an earthworm’s metanephridia, a mammalian nephron

D. Receives filtrate from blood instead of coelomic fluid

How do mammalian nephron differ from an earthworm’s metanephridia?


Fish have how many pumping chambers?

2 pumping chambers.


African lungfish, which are often found in small stagnant pools of fresh water, produce urea as a nitrogenous waste. What is the advantage of this adaptation?

B. Small stagnant pools do not provide enough water to dilute the toxic ammonia.

Why do African lungfish produce urea?


Know that corals and monkeys both have hox genes.



Know what bulbus chambers are and conus chambers are; and what animals have them.



The blastopore is a structure that first becomes evident during

B. Gastrulation


Which of the following is descriptive of protostomes?

c. Spiral and indeterminate cleave, blastopore becomes mouth


Which of the following characteristics generally applies to protostome development?

e. Determinate cleavage


Protostome characteristics generally include which of the following?

d. Absence of a body cavity


Which group consists of deuterostomes?

c. II: Echinoderms, fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, mammals


Which of the following organisms are deuterostomes?

e. Both C and D (echinoderms and chordates)


Know that sponges lack true tissue.



In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

d. Frog


Generally, members of which flatworm classes are nonparasitic.

A. Turbellaria


The members of which class of the phylum Cnidaria occur only as polyps?

d. Anthozoa


Which class of the phylum Cnidaria includes jellies with rounded medusa?

b. Scyphozoa


While vacationing in a country that lacks adequate meat inspection, a student ate undercooked ground beef. Sometime later the student became easily fatigued, and lost body weight. At about the same time, whitish, flattened, rectangular objects full of small white spheres started appearing in his feces. Administration of niclosamide cured the problem. The student had probably been infected by a

d. Tapeworm


How many heart chambers do reptilians have?

5 chambers


A lophophore is used by ectoprocts and brachiopods

f. For feeding


Which molluscan class includes members that undergo embryonic torsion

c. Gastropods

Know what members of mollucs undergo embryonic torsion.


A radula is present in members of which classes?

d. Gastropods


Know what the foramen of panizza is.

A unique anastomosing connection between the two aortic arches that aid in high level activity in a systemic circulation, which requires large amounts of oxygen in the blood.


The heartworm that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?

d. Nematoda


What animals have four heart chambers?

Mammals, birds and crocodiles


The water vascular system of echinoderms

B. Functions in locomotion, feeding and gas exchange


Which of the following is a shared characteristic of chordates?

E. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord


What is one characteristic that seperates chordates from all other animals?

B. Post-anal tail


Which of these are characteristics of all chordates during at least a portion of their development?

e. A, B and C (a dorsal, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal clefts, post-anal tail)


In which of these extant classes did jaws occur earliest?

B. Chondrichthyans


What is a distinctive feature of the chondrichthyans?

E. A mostly cartilaginous endoskeleton


There is evidence that ray-finned fishes originally evolved

f. In freshwater environments


The ray-finned fishes are characterized by

a. A bony endoskeleton, operculum, and usually a swim bladder The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes

a. Was probably modified from simple lungs of freshwater fishes


All of the following belong to the lobe-fin clade, except

a. Chondricththyans


How does the hemocyanin of arthropods and molluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammals?

C. Hemocyanin has protein coupled to copper rather than iron


What is hemoglobin? Which animals have hemoglobin?

The respiratory pigment of almost all vertebrates and a wide variety of invertebrates is the protein hemoglobin, which is coupled with iron rather than copper.


Most dinosaurs and pterosaurs become extinct at the close of the _____ era.

a. Cretaceous


What groups have nucleated erythocytes?

Mammalian erythrocytes lack nuclei (unlike those of fishes, amphibians, birds, and reptiles which are nucleated)


Know what countercurrent exchange is (again). During countercurrent exchange of gasses, what percent of oxygen is present in the oxygenated blood that is returned to the body?

Countercurrent flow maximizes 80 – 90% oxygenated blood.


Know which animals use positive pressure in their respiratory system.

Frogs have positive pressure breathing


Know which animals use negative pressure in their respiratory system.

Reptiles have negative pressure breathing. Mammals also have negative pressure breathing but with a diaphragm, lowering the lung pressure


What are parabronchi?

Lungs of birds channel air through very tiny air vessels called parabronchi, where gas exchange actually takes place.


80. How do mammals reproduce/ incubate their young? There are three major groups.

Three major groups: egg-laying, pouched, and placental
d. Mammals


What structures do amphibians use for gas exchange?

May have lungs, or gills and may use skin a respiratory system
a. Amphibians


What is unique about how birds breathe?

Birds have negative pressure breathing, but it differs from that of mammals and is more efficient because of which of the following reasons?

The respiratory system of a bird is more efficient than that of the human respiratory system because the bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air.


What is coprophagy?

Eating of the feces


How are apes and humans related?

With which of the following statements would a biologist be most inclined to agree?

a. Humans and apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor.


What aids mammals in diving?

During a dive, the heart rate slows, and all major blood vessels are constricted except those critical to survival under water. Metabolic rate slows, and tissues switch to glycolytic metabolism


What kind of dinosaur is “Dino”?



What probably accounts for the switch to DNA-based genetic systems during the evolution of life on Earth?

a. DNA is chemically more stable and replicates with fewer errors (mutations) than RNA.


What is an endospore?

They live in harsh living conditions


The largest seaweeds belong to which group?

b. Brown Algae


What belongs to basidiomycota?

This phylum contains the mushrooms, shelf fungi, and puffballs
c. Basidiomycota


The symbiotic associations involving roots and soil fungiare considered

B. Mutualistic

Roots and soil fungi have what symbiotic association?


What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, carpels and pine cone scales?

c. They are modified leaves

What are modified leaves?


What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?

b. Secondary xylem


Most of the dry weight of a plant is the result of uptake of

c. CO2 through stoma


Carnivorous adaptations of plants mainly compensate for soil that has a relatively low content of

b. Nitrogen


Which of the following types of plants would not yet have been evolved in the forests that became coal deposits?

c. Pine trees


What does the diaphragm do in regards to the respiratory system?

Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
a. The rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume In negative pressure breathing, inhalation results from
b. Contracting the diaphragm


Why don’t killer whales’ fins freeze?

Countercurrent heat exchange, it’s how they limit heat loss