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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (51):
1

Know what gasses were present in the earth’s atmosphere before 2 bya. Know relative proportions (p 508)

Gasses that were present: nitrogen (N), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH3), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H) , and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
· Proportions: Low O2, High N and CO2

2

Know what autocatalytic RNA molecules are (p.509)

RNA that self replicated and could catalyze

3

Where was the first hereditary information found? (p. 509)

RNA, it can carry genetic info and also be autocatalytic

4

Why would the evolution of life switch to DNA to carry the genetic code? (p. 510)

Switched from RNA to DNA b/c DNA is more chemically stable and replicates with fewer errors

5

What allowed earth’s early chondrites to survive and also allowing the earth’s original amino acids. Know what the source was (p. 509)

The early atmosphere was dense, slowing down the chondrites which contained at least 80 different amino acids

6

Determining absolute dates by radiometric dating requires what things? (p. 512)

Accumulation of daughter isotopes; loss of parent isotopes

7

What role did cyanobacteria play in earth’s development? (p. 516)

Cyanobacteria contributed the most to developing the earth’s early atmosphere; made oxygen later it’s why the atmosphere is what it is

8

What event took place at the end of the snowball earth period? (p. 517 – 518)

The Cambrian Explosion – accelerated growth of life

9

How far back does the body fossil record go? (p.514, Fig 25.7)

3.5 BYA

10

What effects or causes does 2 continental landmasses have when they converge? (p. 520)

Global Climate Change
· Change of ocean currents and wind patterns
· Net loss of inter-tidal zones and habitats
· Extinction of many species

11

In regards to morphology, how would Linnaeus classify organisms differently than modern biologists would

Linnaeus would have classified the Hawaiian sliver swords as multiple species

12

What would you expect from an organism with a large number of hox genes?

Hox genes are responsible for the growth of body parts, where they grow, and how big. If you have more hox genes you will be more complex organism. Provides positioning information

13

Know what Homeotic genes are (p. 526)

Basic features of positional information hox genes are type of homeotic genes

14

Understand the roles that different anatomical features may have.

For example: feathers were used for warmth before they were used for flight. Or that a lung can be used as a swim bladder when fish evolve. Lung changed into swim bladder in fish. This is called EXAPTATION

15

What does exaptation mean?

When a body part is utilized for a new purpose than it was before

16

Know why plants, fungi, and prokaryotes are placed in different Taxa (p. 557)

Their cell walls are made of different stuff

17

Where is peptidoglycan most commonly found?

Gram + bacterial cell walls, gram + has more peptidoglycan and gram- less peptidoglycan

18

What is plasmolysis?

When the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall due to loss of water
sugar will lyse the cell wall of bacteria.

19

What are the unique characteristics of endospores? (p. 560)

They can survive harsh climates for long periods of time. BUT endospores are NOT present in all bacteria. They are also immune to acidity.

20

Understand and know what structures/processes are involved in conjugation

Sex pili and stuff

21

. Know what is produced by Gram – bacterial cell walls

Only in gram negative ENDOTOXINS are released

22

Know the characteristics of cyanobacteria (p.589, 564)

· Photoautotrophic (photosynthesis)
· Nitrogen fixation

23

What are ways that prokaryotes protect an enzyme from oxygen? (p. 564)

· Capsules – form capsules to protect
· Obligate Anaerobes – live with out air

24

What is horizontal gene transfers?

The mitochondria acquire their genes because they are descendants of the Prokaryotes

25

Characteristics of bacteria lacking peptidoglycan (archae).

· They have an optimal pH that is less than 7.0,so they like an acidic environment

26

Understand sign between peptidoglycan and a thermoacidophyle

One is Archaean and one is a hot acid

27

Know and understand why prokaryotes have been so successful on earth

· Large Biomass
· Reproduce Quickly
· More diverse habitat
· More diverse metabolism

28

What is the danger of over-use of antibiotics?

Bacteria will evolve bacterial resistance

29

How would a host respond to a broad sense of antibiotics?

Nutritional deficiency

30

Know how intestinal bacteria play a role in our nutritional absorption

Produce vitamins and protect us

31

Know that protists are Eukaryotes

?

32

What are some examples of strong evidence that there are endosymbiotic organisms in eukaryotes? (p. 578)

· Mitochondria
· Chlorophyll

33

Know what a mixotrope is and what allows it to survive

They combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition. So if a mixotroph loses its plastids it can still survive by eating other organisms. Mixotrophs survive by phagocytosis and absorption.

34

Know a list of bacteria and which would be able to avoid the immune system?

Trypanosome – hide inside cells change antigens,sleeping sickness
· Plasmodium – Malaria
· They can evade the human immune system by changing their surface proteins

35

What are dynoflagellates? (p. 582)

· They make the red tide
· Have 2 flagella
· Walls composed of cellulose plates
· Many types contain chlorophyll

36

What are ciliates? (p. 584)

· Use cilia for locomotion
· They are complex organisms
· Primarily live in fresh water
· Have 2 or more nuclei

37

. Understand why convergent evolution is taking place between the water molds and fungus hyphae

Common need for the decomposers to absorb nutrients by increasing surface area through hyphae (long projectiles)

38

Know what caused the Irish Potato famine

Oomyctes (water/Slime molds)

39

What is Silica and where is it found most

Marine sediments consisting of radiolarian shells; built on silica backbone (CLIFFS OF DOVER); They are found in Diatoms

40

Know what Foraminifera are (p. 589)

Protists, eukaryotic, tests or porous shells and have pseudopodia that extend and function in swimming, test formation, and feeding.

41

Red Algae

Absorbs blue and reflects red

42

A-Know how colors are projected and how that pertains to algae (p. 590)

Coloring is what they reflect

43

What is Brown Algae?

The largest sea weeds belong to brown algae. They are the most abundant

44

. Know the 5 (or so) main points about protists.(p. 595, 594)

Extremely diverse collection, photoautotrophs,heterotrophs, mixotrophs, so diverse because of endosymbiosis

45

Know the general characteristics of fungi.Know what they do, and how they absorb food

Decomposers, they throw up/ secrete hydrolytic enzymes and then absorb nutrients. Cell wall composed of chitin

46

Know what the fungal enzymes do.

They secrete enzymes through hyphae hydrolytic enzymes and then absorb nutrients

47

Know groups or phylum that have protective chitin shells or coverings (p. 637)

Arthropods, Insects, Fungi

48

Know what hyphae are as they pertain to fungi

Projections that create mycillium, and secrete hydrolytic enzymes, Underground

49

Know what pheromones are and what roles they play. (p. 639)

Pheromones are sexual signaling molecules

50

Know what chytridiomycota is (p. 641)

This is the phylum that contains organisms that most closely resemble the ancient fungi and there are a ton of them

51

Know what zygomycota is. (p. 643)

Fast growing molds/ food molds. They are very old and were once considered glomeromycota-they create their own phyla