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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (90):

In insect and animal development what does Hox genes play a role in?

It determines morphology. It determines what limbs go where and how many of them
there are.


What do animals have in common?

Hox genes.


What’s the significance of flagellated protists?

They are the closest living relatives of animals.


What is the significance of the Cambrian period in today’s animals?

Increased O2, Predator-prey relationships, development of locomotion that allowed animals to move on to land, more complex hox gene evolution, duplication of genes, and development of biomineral (chitin) exoskeletons to creat hard bodies.


What would you not expect to find in the ediacaran period?

You wouldn’t find hard bodied animals. There were only soft bodied animals during that period, no hard parts, no exoskeletons.


In the Cambrian radiation, what genetic process was most helpful?

Gene duplication. This allowed organisms to become more complex.


How would an organism with radial symmetry move?

It would drift on currents.
Organisms with bilateral symmetry move front to back or side to side.


Know the characterstics of a sponge (porifera).

No true tissues (muslces, nerves, or organs), assymetrical, sessile (doesn’t move), has choanocytes (generate a current through their body to filter feed), they are neither triploblastic nor diploblastic – they are a basil animal. (so they only have 1 germ layer), .


Know what groups contain diploblastic organisms (have only 2 germ layers)

Cnidarians (jellies and corals) they also have radial symmetry.


What groups contain deuterostomes?

Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda, Echinodermata (star fish), Chordata (All vertebrates)


When does the blastopore first appear?



Know the characteristics of protostomes.

-Protostomes – Devleop mouth first, determinate growth, spiral cleavage, formed from the mesoderm.

-Dueterstomes – Develops anus first, indeterminate growth, radial growth.


Know the characteristics of ecdysozoans.

They all have a hard exoskeleton and shed it through a process called ecdysis (molting).


What group does echinoderms and chordates belong to?



What where the factors that influenced the Cambrian explosion?

Increased O2, Predator-prey relationships, development of locomotion that allowed animals to move on to land, more complex hox gene evolution, duplication of genes, and development of biomineral (chitin) exoskeletons to create hard bodies.


What do sponges (Porifera) lack that other animal phyla have?

True Tissues (muslces, nerves, or organs) and symmetry.


What are choanocytes?

Cells that help the feeding process of sponges by generating a current through the sponges body so that it can filter feed.


What are amoebocytes?

They help in digestion and manufacture skeleton fibers (spicules) that provide structural material of sponges.


What are cribrostatin?

They create Antibiotics.


Know the Characteristics of Cnideria.

Cnideria are jellyfish. They have true tissues, they have both a non-motile (sessile) and motile form. The polyp form is like seas anemones, they don’t move around. The medusa form is like the free floating jellyfish that drift around in the water current. They are diploblastic (2 primary tissues), they have radial symmetry, hthey have a sack with
digestive and vascular components, they are carnivores, they have cnidocytes (capture and hold food), and they have stinging capsules (pneumatocytes).


Know the Characteristics of Cnideria again.

Just know all of the characteristics from question 20. He will probably ask something like “which of the following is not a characteristic of jellyfish?” in both of these questions.


What members of Cnideria only occur as polyps?

Anthozoas (sea anemonies and corals).


What are scyphozoan?

A typical jellyfish. Scyphozoan is a class of cnideria often considered to be “the true Jellyfish”. They the animal that most people think of when they talk about “jellyfish”.


Which flatworm is not a parasite?



What is the intermediate for blood fluke (trematode) infection?

Snails. (this will probably be a story question). They start out in fecal contaminated water, then they get into the legs of people who walk in the water, they live in the digestive tract of those people until they get pooped out. Then they live in digestive tract of snails, who carry them back to the water to start the cycle all over again. The question might ask “In order to eliminate blood flukes, what intermediate has to be destroyed?”. Because you don’t want to destroy humans, you would say that the snail intermediate should be destroyed to stop further propagation of the parasite.


Know signs and symptoms for tapeworm? Route of infection. (there may be 3 questions on this)

Loss of body weight, teeth, aches, tired, fatigue, butt itches, white fleks in poop. It comes from un-cooked or under-cooked pork. The medicine Niclosamide is a chewable tablet used against tape worm infections.


know the characteristics of rotifera.

They reproduce by parthenogenesis (The female can asexually produce more females without a male. Asexual reproduction), they’re very small, they can live in fresh water, salt water, or soil, they have an alimentary canal, they have digestive tube with separate mouth and anus, they’re digestive organs lie in a pseudocoelom.


know how the tapeworm is able to get its nutrients.

They absorb their nutrients from their host.


know the characteristics and development of mollusks.

Visceral mass, mantle, radula (grasping organ), hemophodites, in their larval stage they are Trochophores (free swimming larva), and they have a muscular foot.


Know what a lophophore is used for. Pg. 677

For eating. It is used by suspension feeders, because they are tentacles around the mouth that capture food and bring it into the mouth.


Know what molluscan undergoes embryonic torsion. Pg. 678-679

Gastropods (snails). Embryonic torsion is a 180° rotation where the anus moves up over the head during development.


What classes use radula (a tongue-like thing used for feeding)? Pg.678-679

Gastropods (snails and slugs), cephalopods, and Polyplacophora (chitons).


How do bivalves feed? Pg. 679

They are suspension feeders. They float around and feed through gill slits, then they trap food on a mucus membrane on the lophophore, and move it to the mouth.


What class releases anticoagulant and was used medicially? Pg. 682

Hirudinea (leaches)


know the characteristics of nematodes (round worms). Pg. 683

Ecdysis (molting), they live in soild and water, they are coered by a cuticle that can shed, they can do gas exchange through the cuticle (they breath through their skin), they have an alimentary canal, they lack a circulatory system, they get nutrients through a pseudocoelom.


know the characteristics of arthropods (bugs). Pg. 685

Jointed appendages, exoskeleton (made of chitin), bilateral symmetry, most numerous and successful animal phylum on earth, open circulatory system that uses hemolymph, and they have segmented bodies, have 3 primary germ layers, Protastome development (mouth before anus).


know what chelicerae are. Pg. 686-687

Claw-like appendages used for feeding. Used by Spiders, mites, ticks, and scorpions, and horseshoe crabs.


What has two pairs of jointed leg per segment? (You’ll need to be able to tell the difference between millipedes and centipedes). Pg. 687

a. Millipedes – Herbivore, 2 pairs of jointed legs per segment.

b. Centipedes – Carnivore, 1 pair of jointed legs per segment.


What’s the difference between complete metamorphosis and incomplete metamorphosis? Pg. 689

a. Complete Metamorphosis – The basis don’t resemble the adults at all.
b. Incomplete Metamorphosis – The babies still resemble the adults.


What has two pairs of antennae? Pg. 692



Know what echinoderms are. Pg. 693



This is a critical thinking questions that nobody knows anything about.

It might be about the huge dragon flies that existed during the carboniferous period. Because there was a ton of O2, during this period the dragonflies got huge. They had tracheal rings big enough the handle the high O2 content.


Know the characteristics of Arthropods. Pg. 685

Jointed appendages, exoskeleton (made of chitin), bilateral symmetry, most numerous and successful animal phylum on earth, open circulatory system that uses hemolymph, and they have segmented bodies, have 3 primary germ layers, Protastome development (mouth before anus).


What are the characteristics of echinoderms? Pg. 693

Starfish. They have an endoskeleton of dermoplates beneath the skin, a water vascular system (which allows for feeding, gas exchange, and locomotion), they move with tube feed (which allows them to move around, eat, and do gas exchange), they have a thin epidermis made of calcium carbonate that covers their endoskeleton, and spiny sponges.


What role does the vascular system play in echinoderms? Pg. 693

It allows feeding, gas exchange, and locomotion.


What do all chordates share? Pg. 669-701

a. Notochord
b. Pharyngeal slits (pharyngeal pouches or slits)
c. Post-anal tail
d. Dorsal hollow nerve cord


What characteristics do chordates have in their development? Pg. 669-701

Know the four characteristics listed in the question above.


What were chordate pharyngeal slits first used for? Pg. 700

Pharyngeal slits were first used for suspension feeding then evolved into gill slits which are used for gas exchange in vertebrates. In tetrapods they pharyngeal slits don’t develop into slits, instead they develop into the ear, head and neck.


Know what cephalochordates are. Pg. 698-699

a. They are the immediate ancestors of fish. They are known as lancets, and they are the first fossils found. They lived 165 million years ago, and they are most likely the earliest chordates.
b. They are more closely related to vertebrates than invertebrates.


What’s the significance of lancelets?

They are the most recent ancestor of all vertebrates. They were contemporaries of chordates, NOT ancestors.


What do hagfish and lampreys (and conodonts) have in common? Pg. 703-704

They don’t have a jaw.


In what group/phylum did jaws first appear?

Gnathostomes (placoderms and acanthodians are subgroups).


The skeletal rods that supported pharyngeal slits derived to form what?

The jaw.


What is distinctive about chondrichthyans (sharks)? Pg. 707

They have a cartilage endoskeleton (no true bone).


What are chondrichthyan teeth related to in the structural sense?

Their scales. Both the teeth and the scales are made from the same epidermal material.


Where did ray-finned fish originally evolve? Pg. 708-709

Fresh water environments.


What are the characteristics of ray-finned fish? Pg. 708-709

They have a swim bladder, they are the most abundant and diverse animals of living vertebrates, their fins are supported by thin versatile rays which give them their versatile motion, they have bones, and an internal skeletal system (endoskeleton), and they have operculum (hard part that covers the gills for protection).


Where did the swim bladder evolve from in ray-finned fish? Pg. 708-709

From the lungs of tetrapods.


Know what belong to the lobe-fin clade. Pg. 699

Tetrapods, Coelacanths, and lungfish (Australian lungfish, South African lungfish, and South American lungfish).


What did birds evolve from? Pg. 718-719



How did the amniotic egg aid in the success of vertebrates? Pg. 714

Prevents desiccation of the embryo in dry environments. This made it so that animals no longer had to return to the water to have babies.


What did snakes evolve from? Pg. 715

Lizards. (reptiles – legless dinosaurs that evolved from lizards).


What happened in the Cretaceous period? Pg. 716

Mass extinction of dinosaurs – 65 million years ago.


what is an amniote? Which animals are Amniote? Pg. 699, fig 34.2

A group of tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg.

Animals that are amniotes are: sacropods – birds, retiles and dinosaurs. Sinapsids – mammals). They have 4 extra-embryonic membranes that aid in development of the embryo, and they have a shell.


what is a characteristic only birds have? Pg. 718

Keeled sternum (it sticks out) and feathers.


know the evolutionary tree leading to mammals.

Pg. 699 Fig 34.2 – just memorize it.


know where birds evolved.

Dinosaurs evolved into theropods (archaeopteryx is the earliest known bird. It was found in a german quarry).


know what ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs are (general).

They are reptiles that had to return to the water. They would rise to the surface to breath.


know what characteristics of the pterosaurs played a role in bird and bat characteristics.

Their forelimbs are homologous AND analogous to the forelmbs of birds and bats that make up their wings and give them filght.


know that stem reptiles and amphibians share the most DNA.

It’s just a fact you need to know.


know what endotherms are.

Endotherms – “warm-blooded” animals that use their metabolism to generate internal heat.
Exotherms – “cold-blooded” animals that do not use their metabolism to generate internal heat. They absorb ambient heat.


What group of animals have a diaphragm. Pg. 720-721



Differentiation of teeth is seen in what group? Pg. 720-721



What do mammals have that no other animal has? Pg. 720-721

Mammary glands, Hair with keratin filaments, differentiation of teeth, placenta, digestive tract specialization, bones in the jaw and skull (auditory ossicles).


Increased brain to body ration was an evolutionary trend for what? (think human ancestor)

Homo Erectus


In reptiles and mammals, where does fertilization take place? Pg. 715

Internally (e.g. the uterus), they form an amniotic egg.


Know the different ways mammals reproduce.

Lay eggs, Marsupials (pouches like kangaroos), uterus (complete embryonic development inside mothers body).


Know the characteristics of amphibians. Pg. 713

Most skin with lots of capillaries (so they can breath through their skin), lungs and gills
slits, 3 chambered hearts, external fertilization, tadpole to adult maturation.


What are the most abundant and diverse extant (living) vertebrates?

Ray finned fish (Actinopterygii)


Know which taxonomic terms are general to specific.

a. Doman, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
b. Clade – includes ancestors and all descendants.
c. Grade – 2 different animals that have the same level of organization.
d. (Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia,) Primapes, Anthropoids, Hominoids, Hominids, Homo, Sapiens


What role did repositioning of the foramen magnum play? Pg. 728

It allowed the head to be held directly over the body while it is standing upright. This allowed bipedal locomotion.


What species first made tools? Pg. 730

Australopithecus Garhi (basically just remember the “garhi” one).


What was so significant about the Homo Erectus? Pg. 731

They were the first hominid to migrate out of Africa, they have the longest fossil record, they are all over Africa, Asia and Europe. They invented FIRE, they had an increased brain to body ratio, and they are now extinct.


How are humans and apes related?

Hominids are the common ancestor of both apes and humans.


How old was the oldest Homo Sapien fossil? Pg. 732

195,000 years old. (it was found in Omo, Ethiopia)


Hominoids are synonymous to what?

Apes are hominoids.


What is a specific group prosimians are included into?



What was the role of DLx genes? Pg. 704

It’s a transcription factor in genes that allows for genetic complexity. It is responsible for complex nervous systems, extensive skull, and vertebrae.


What gene lined the development of speech in hominids? Pg. 733

FOX P2 gene.


What is a Snorkasaurus?

The flinstones pet dinosaur (named Dino).