What are the 7 main culprits of bad IAQ?
Combustibles VOCs Standing Moisture Formaldehyde Poisons Particle board
What are the 3 classes of standpipe? Describe them.
Class 1: equipped with 2.5 inch outlets. To be used by fire dept only. Dry system Class I (Dry Standpipe): used by fire department only. • Dry system without a directly connected water supply, 2.5” outlets, • Located at every level of a building within stairway enclosures or within the vestibule if exit enclosure is pressurized • Must be used when any portion of a building interior is more than 200 feet of travel from the nearest point of fire department access • Used in buildings with more than three stories, and shopping malls • If more than 75’ above grade, the pipe connection must be provided in every required stairway as well • Ball Drip used to insure the standpipe remains dry • Won’t freeze or rust Class 2: used by occupants before the fire department arrives • Wet system directly connected to water supply system • Equipped with 1.5” outlets and hoses for occupant use • Required in buildings 4 or more stories tall, theaters, assembly spaces, B, H, I, M, and S occupancies • Every point of the building must be within 30’ of the end of a 100’ hose attached to an outlet • Must be designed to supply at least 35 gpm at 25 psi for at least 30 minutes • Water system must be designed to provide 70 gpm at 25 psi for 30 minutes Class 3: used by both occupants and fire department • A combo system directly connected to a water supply with both 1.5” and 2.5”outlets • Installed in buildings where the highest floor level is more than 30’ above the lowest level of fire dept. access • Every point of the building must be within 30’ of the end of a 100’ hose attached to an outlet • Installed in buildings where the highest floor level is over 30’ above the lowest fire department vehicle access, or where the lowest floor level is 30’ below the highest fire department vehicle access • Exception to use a Class I Standpipe Are: • Buildings equipped with a sprinkler system • Open parking garages less than 150’ tall • Open parking garages subject to freezing temperatures • Basements that are sprinklered
Which of the following types of standpipe connection are intended for use by building occupants? A. Class I only B. Class II only C. Class I and Class II only D. Class II and Class III only
D Class II and Class III only
2. Which electric feeder has highest total first cost, but lowest labor cost? a) Cable tray b) Wire and conduit c) Busduct d) Cablebus
Where are fire detectors required?
Near fire doors, exit corridors, hotel rooms, bedrooms, public places of assembly
What are the types of fire detection devices?
Ionization detector: responds to products of combustion-ionized particles rather than smoke; photoelectric detectors: respond to smoke which obscures a light beam; rise of temperature detectors: responds to precense of heat and triggers when a temp is reached;
What is the principal advantage of dry- type transformer? a) Low voltage b) Ease of installation c) Low noise d) Small size
b) Ease of installation
True of false. Dry-pipe sprinkler systems are most efficient than wet-pipe systems/
True or false. Siamese connections serve both sprinklers and standpipes.
True or false. The hazard classification does not necessarily affect sprinkler layout.
True or false. Standpipes must be provided within stairways or within vestibules of smoke proof enclosures.
True or false. Standpipes are required in building four or more stories high and those exceeding 150 ft.
True or false. Sprinkler piping can be either copper or plastic.
The normal concentration of oxygen in air is:
Evacuation and fire protection in high-rise buildings can be problematic because fire fighting equipment cannot usually reach higher than:
90 ft (27m)
Exterior fire escapes are generally no longer permitted because:
smoke plumes rising from exterior windows can redner these devices unusable early in a fire
n order of importance, it is most important to fire-protect:
columns, girders, beams, floor slab
Supplying fresh air to a smoke-free stair entirely from the top or bottom is not advisable because:
It is too likely that open doors near the source would deplete fresh air for the rest of the stair
Sprinkler and smoke removal systems are sometimes at cross-purposes because:
the buaoncy of smoke is reduced by cooling water
In a reinforced-concrete building, reinforcing rods can be used as lightning conductors only if:
the rods are welded, not tied
What is a standard temperature for fusible link activation?
165 deg F is most comon
What are the 3 things a fire needs?
Three common objectives of building fire safety, in order of usual importance are:
1 protection of life
2 protection of property
3 continuity of operation
Outline how occupant make decisions in a fire:
1 cues are detected (smell smoke, hear alarm bells)
2 occupant define situation (how serious is fire, how other people are reacting
3 coping behavior begins (fight or flight)
Fire passes through four stages in this order:
• Incipient: invisible particulate matter like combustion gas is given off but no flame is visible, nor any smoke/heat generated. Sensors detect gas
• Smoldering: large particles become visible as smoke, but no visible flame or appreciable heat. Sensors are photoelectric
• Flame: appreciable heat is not immediate present, but follows very quickly. Sensors detect flame
• Heat: uncontrolled heat and rapidly expanding air is present and flames and smoke become major hazards. Smoke inhalation ultimately causes most injuries. Sensors detect heat.
Active Smoke Control System:
an engineered system that uses mechanical fans to produce pressure differentials across smoke barriers or to establish airflows to limit and direct smoke movement
• Open doors with automatic closing devices close
• Supply and return air ducts to the fire zone shut down
• Exhaust to the outside air is turned on creating negative pressure
• In places or refuge, return an exhaust air ducts are closed and supply air is forced
into a space creating a positive pressure.
Critical, as it separates a building into sections
• Goal is to contain a fire and limit its spread so people can escape and to protect other parts of the building that weren’t originally subject to fire
• Can serve as an area of refuge for occupants
• Separation is required:
• Between different occupancies
• At Structural members, they are isolated to protect from fire exposure
• Depending on occupancy at walls, floors, and ceiling that separate compartments
• At parts of the a building where the max allowable area is exceeded
• At all openings (e.g.: doors, windows, ducts) through rated walls, closed with
approved fire rated devices
• At exterior walls so to avoid fire spreading to other structures
a required exit which consist of a vestibule and continuous stairway enclosed from the highest point to the lowest point by 2-Hour walls and which exist into a public way or exit passage leading to one
How do sprinkler systems hamper the functioning of smoke exhaust systems?
they create a curtain of water that inhibits the movement of smoke and it cools the smoke, thus reducing its bouoyancy. As less bouyant smoke descends, visibility is reduced and the danger of smoke inhalation increases. The buoyancy of smoke is the factor relied on by smoke exhaust systems, whose intakes are located at ceiling level.
Describe Class I standpipes
used for full scale fire fighting
typically required in both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings more than 3 stories high, as well as in malls
used by firefighters only
2.5 inch hose connection
System of choice as the use of class I and II decline