Devices used for access control?
Card readers, numbered keypads, card readers, electric strikes, electromagnetic locks, biometric devices, notification systems
Devices used for object protections?
Capcitance proximity detectors, vibration detectors, infrared motion detectors
What are the common devices for area/room protection?
Photoelectric beams, infrared detectors, audio detectors, pressure sensors, ultrasonic detectors, microwave detectors
What are the common devices of perimeter protection?
Magnetic contacts, glass break detectors, window screens, photoelectric cells
What are the 3 types of intrusion detection?
Perimeter protection, area/room protections, object protection
Star of Life:
blue six pointed star with the rod of Asclepius in the center, used to
represent emergency medical services
• Star of life must be displayed if building is over 4 stories and has at least one elevator, which must be able to hold a 24X84 open stretcher
• Used for low-rise, or less than 5 story buildings, or about 50’-0”
• Speed varies between 25 - 150 feet per minute
• Can carry about 10 tons
• Commonly used for freight in industrial and low-rise commercial buildings,
passengers in small buildings, or single family residential
• Sit over a plunger or ram which operates a cylinder that extends as far into the
ground as it is tall.
• Oil serves as the pressure fluid and is controlled by high speed pumps
• The main advantage of hydraulic elevator systems is that they don't require a
penthouse machine room or heavily braced roof over the shaft
• Cost less than electric elevators because they are more simple
• Holeless Hydraulic: uses a telescoping plunger set into the shaft next to the
cab. Lift is provided by applying force to the upper member of the car frame
Electric (Traction) Elevator:
• Used in commercial and industrial buildings greater than 5 stories/50’-0”
• Speeds up to 1,800 feet per minute
• Capacities up to 10,000 pounds
• Traction is used to transmit lifting power to the hoisting cables by means of
friction that develops when cables run over grooves in the sheave
• On one end is the elevator cab and the other are counterweights that weigh
about the weight of an empty car plus 40% of the live load capacity
• Traction machine: Motor and drum assembly that is geared or gearless
• Gearless: motor, sheave, and break all mounded on a common shaft, so 1
revolution of the motor means one turn of the main sheave (typically used for
• Geared: motor and break on one shaft which drives a second main shaft, used
for high speed installation
• Roping: the arrangement of cables supporting the elevator
• Single wrap: simplest, cables pass only once over elevator machine sheave and
then connected to the counterweight
• Double wrap: cables pass over the sheave twice, get worn out faster, used for high speed elevators where more traction is required
• 1:1 Roping: when the rope is directly connected to the counterweight, the cable travels in the opposite direction as far as the car
• 1:2 Roping: when the rope is wrapped around a sheave on the counterweight and connected to the top of the shaft the rope moves twice as fast as the car, but requires less weigh to be lifted. (Car travels twice as far as the piston)
What is a doubl decker elevator and what are its advantages?
It is an elevator with two cars attached together, one on top of the other. This allows passengers on two consecutive floors to be able to use the elevator simultaneously, significantly increasing the passenger capacity of an elevator shaft.
Double-deck elevators occupy less building core space than traditional single-deck elevators do for the same level of traffic.