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Flashcards in Fireground Strategies Deck (370):
1

_____ fires account for a great majority of fire deaths in the United States each year.

Private-dwellings

2

The fact that most fatal fires occur at private dwellings can be attributed to five factors:

1. Unsafe sleeping habits
2. Carelessness and indifference
3. Improper storage and housekeeping
4. Complacency
5. Home repair specialists

3

Many people in private dwellings sleep on the floors _____

above grade

4

In private dwellings, ____ doors have saved many lives because they act like an initial barrier to the products of combustion.

closed

5

____ operations are directly aimed at these areas above grade.

VES

6

Smoke detector batteries should be changed ____.

twice a year

7

The open door coupled with the ventilation opening the VES team has just created (most effective path of least resistance for a hoseline-driven or stariwell driven fir) can cause fire to spread in that direction with great speed.

True

8

Many people are burned and killed each year due to fires caused by ____ carelessness.

electrical

9

When first arriving at a fire in a home with a pool, inquire where the ____ are stored and take actions to safeguard firefighters from this non-routine exposure.

chemicals

10

_____ goes hand in hand with carelessness and indifference.

Complacency

11

____ is probably our greatest ally against fire and subsequent death in all residential dwellings.

Public education

12

Remeber that the primary mission of the fire service is ______.

fire prevention

13

Firefighting Concerns in Private Dwellings:

1. Open stairways
2. Excessvie and improper storage and debris
3. Setbacks and landscaping obstacles
4. Combustible exterior
5. HVAC systems
6. Voids in construction
7. The attached garage
8. Dangerous peaked-roof conditions
9. Converted private dwellings

14

Although not exclusively to the private dwelling, the ____ is ususally the focal point when addressing concerns of floor-to-floor fire spread.

open stairway

15

In open stairways, ____ heat transfer will be the culprit here.

convected

16

In multiple dwellings, apartments usually only occupy ____ level.

one

17

In private dwellings, it's common to find multiple levels that are not _____.

compartmentalized

18

____ operations are extremely effective for quickly accessing the upper floors and circumventing the open stairway that may be impassable as an access and escape route.

VES

19

After breaking the windows, the first thing to do is to ____ to let the room vent for a few seconds.

pause

20

For this reason, firefighters should first ___ the floor before sounding it.

probe

21

Hoselines must also be in place to protect the stairs, especially if a _____ fire is in progress.

basement

22

Hoselines protecting the stairs cannot be withdrawn until all personnel operating ____ the fire are confirmed to be out of the building.

above

23

A proactive self-help action that can be taken by the team going above the fire is to ____ the exterior of the building for exit paths and the location and extent of fire and its likely path in the structure.

size up

24

____ mansion condtions or the "stuffed building" syndrome have an increased fire and possibly building load and will hamper hoseline advancement, spread fire like an arsonist's trailer would, and complicate search ops.

Collier's

25

____ on private dwellings will usually cause a delay in getting the first line into operation, may disallow aerial operations, and will delay the raising of ground ladders.

Setbacks

26

_____ exterior walls are often responsible for extremely rapid-fire spread from floor to floor and from building to building.

Combustible

27

Although it is usually no acceptable to utilize the hydrant in front of the building, one such area where it may be acceptable is when a ____ is encountered.

setback

28

Especially in estate homes, the building may be more than ___ feet from the street.

100

29

____ exteriors are a major fire spread concern, both inside and outside the fire building.

Combustible

30

The extednding of fire from floor to floor via the building's exterior is also known as _____.

leapfrogging

31

Incident commanders and firefighters on the exterior must be cognizant of THIS fire spread hazard, and communicate any exterior-related fire spread:

leapfrogging

32

Where asphalt siding is present, THIS may be the most important tactic that prevents spread to the upper floors and to adjacent structures:

place and apply a hose stream directly to the combustible exterior

33

A larger concern with combustible exteriors is the possibility of fire spread from building to building via ___ heat.

radiant

34

Exposure walls should be kept ___ to combat the transmission of radiant heat from the parent body of fire.

wet

35

It will be most effective if the line can alternate between the combustible walls of to both the ____ and the _____.

fire building and exposure

36

Operational Strategy for Exposures with Combustible Exterior Walls: (9)

1. Assign a division supervisor
2. Conduct a primary search and evacuate building
3. Utilize large diameter handline or master stream on exposed wall
4. Stretch hand lines into the exposure to protect against fire spread
5. Horizontally and vertically vent as necessary
6. Close windows on exposed side
7. THEN open windows and doors on unexposed side to dissipate heat
8. Supply FDC
9. Request progress reports

37

This system should be shut down as a matter of procedure and then its entire length checked for signs of fire:

HVAC

38

Commercial occupancies will usually position HVAC units on the ____ of the structure.

roof

39

If there is more than one compressor unit present, expect ____ zone heating and air conditioning.

multiple

40

Ensure all ____ units are shut down to prevent fire spread into other areas of the dwelling via these avenues.

HVAC

41

Some newer private dwellings, many of those built of lightweight wood truss, have the HVAC unit located in the ____.

attic

42

____ are boxed-out areas that are used to house wires, ventilation systems for stoves, and piping.

Soffits

43

The strategic goal is to ____ the fire to the garage.

confine

44

Another area of concern, especially in newer private dwellings, is the presence of a central _____ system.

vacuum

45

Many private dwellings, especially those built during and after the 1950s, will have the garage attached as part of the dwelling structure.

True

46

Irregardless of the orientation, there will nearly always be a door leading from the garage into the main living area.

True

47

Attached garage fires will generally be ____ or ____ line fires.

three or four

48

In reference to garage fires, this is the critical point of protection in regard to life safety:

door by which occupants access the garage

49

The first line in a garage fire is a _____ line.

confinement

50

The other time a confinement line is used is for a _____ fire in an old law multiple dwelling.

cellar

51

Companies venting the roof must take care to avoid spreading fire into windows and eaves of the dwelling proper by positioning the vent hole in an area that is as remote from the dwelling as possible, wind permitting.

True

52

Make sure all garage doors are opened to accelerate the vent operation, and prop the doors open with a tool so they will not close.

True

53

If the garage has no ventilation openings, which is prevalent in some two-story platform frames, ______ ventilation may be required AFTER the fire is definitely knocked down.

mechanical

54

For safety purposed, unless there is victim that must be protected, all initial attacks should be made from _____ the overhead garage door.

outside

55

A good majority of private dwellings have ____ roofs.

peaked

56

Roof ____ is also a major consideration during roof ops.

slope

57

Peaked roofs are constructed in one of three ways. The construction made up of narrow furring strips spaced several inches apart is the WEAKEST of the non-truss roof types.

True

58

Roof rafters in peaked roofs are spaced anywhere from ____ to ____ feet and covered with wood planking or plywood.

12 to 24

59

This type of roof is found in newer construction and is common in housing developments:

peaked truss roof

60

The peaked truss roof offers the least amount of support in regard to spacing and are usually sloped at least ___ degrees.

45

61

The peaked truss roof trusses are usually spaced ____ feet on center.

four

62

There is NO ridgepole found in peaked truss roof construction.

True

63

Peaked truss roofs should only be cut from an aerial device.

True

64

In addition to minimal support, the peaked roof is constructed of lightweight __ x __ inch wood members that are joined together by she metal surface fasteners.

2 x 4

65

These type shingles, although relatively easy to cut through and remove, are prone to decay and mildew, making them slippery:

Wood shake shingles

66

By far, the most dangerous type roof coverings are those constructed from more substantial material such as:

tile
slate
clay

67

These types of roofs can be extremely slippery when they begin to melt causing firefighter not properly secured to lose his balance:

peaked roofs

68

One expert recommends throwing a heavy tarp over solar panels to eliminate solar reception capability of the panels.

True

69

A roof with a slope of ___ degrees or less is relatively safe to operate on without a roof ladder.

30

70

Any roof over ___ degrees and up to ___ degrees should mandate the use of at least a roof ladder.

30, 45

71

A roof with a slope greater than ____ degrees should not be walked on at all.

45

72

The lack of ______ that is usually found in multiple dwellings and the limited _____ provided by fewer ways to get out of the structure have contributed to many multiple fatality fires.

compartmentation
egress

73

The major concern with illegal conversions is that there is usually no ______.

secondary means of egress.

74

Many times, the only way into (and out of) the upper floor will be by way of ____.

ground ladders

75

In fact, as a matter of routine, ladders should be raised to all sides of the structures by the ____ team for secondary egress from the structure.

RIC

76

Estate homes are single family private dwellings with square footage in excess of ____ square feet.

3,000

77

Estate Homes: Exterior walls may be ____ or _____.

plywood or chipboard

78

The ____ estate homes look like erector sets.

all-stell

79

The rule of thumb to follow is the bigger the house, the further the ____ from the street.

set back

80

Estate Homes: Foyers will generally be over ___ feet high.

20

81

There will usually be a large chandelier suspended from the center of the entranceway foyer that can weigh over ____ lbs, all suspended by a light steel chain.

100

82

Ceilings of ___ feet and higher are common in the room of estate homes.

10

83

Floor-to-floor window spacing in estate homes may be ___ feet or more as compared to the standard 10 feet.

12

84

Columns in estate homes are more often than not a large engineered laminated wood beam hat may be as thick as ___ inches.

6

85

Some estate homes will have what is termed an English or _____, which is found when land at the rear of the house slopes or is graded downward.

walk-out basement

86

Estate Homes: Make sure, even if attacking from the rear, that the initial line protects the _____ inside the main living area first before seeking alternative hose line entry points.

main stairway

87

English or walk-out basements have ___ stories at the front and ____ stories at the rear.

2, 3

88

Jacuzzi tubs represent a CONCENTRATED LOAD, and are built as platforms.

True

89

Access to the attic in most estate homes is via a flimsy, spring-loaded drop-down stairwell that is rated for about ___ pounds.

250

90

There are 5 critical interior fire control factors in their and every building fire:

C.R.A.V.E
Command
Rescue
Attack
Ventilation
Extension Prevention

91

____ is nothing more than compressed sawdust and recycled plastic.

Trex

92

The 3 principles of the Fire Coordination Triangle:

1. Search & Rescue
2. Fire Attack
3. Ventilation

93

A complete triangle will support the center of the triangle which is _____.

fireground safety

94

To be effective, command must provide the following:

1. Leadership
2. Support
3. Reinforcement
4. Relief

95

Primary search efforts should be focused on removing those in the areas of the fire first ( Fire Floor - Immediate fire area followed by adjacent areas), then checking all other ares beginning with the floor ____ the fire.

above

96

Class I Rescue:

-The rescuer(s) know the location of the victim
-Making the rescue DOES NOT put the rescuer or victim in any great danger

97

Class II Rescue:

-The rescuer(s) knows the location of the victim
-The rescuer(s) must put him or herself and the victim in harm's way

98

Class III Rescue:

-The rescuer(s) DOES NOT know the location of the victim
-The rescuer(s) must put him or herself and the victim in harm's way, often in extreme danger

99

The initial attack line must be stretched via the safest, ______ to place the line between victims and the fire.

most effective path of least resistance

100

If a third line must be stretched, it must access the building by a different means that the first two lines.

True

101

It is best to hoist the line up the ____ of the building.

exterior

102

In cases where the first and second arrived engine companies arrive before the ladder company, the ____ engine company can "bump" the first arriving engine.

second

103

After being "bumped" the first arriving engine moves up and becomes the _____, while the second engine takes the building and becomes the ____ engine.

water supply
attack

104

Bumping: The second engine's position will be ____ the building leaving room for the ladder company.

past

105

If a forward lay hydrant-to-fire method is used, the first arriving company should also initiate ______.

communication

106

Third and later-arriving engines may take positions as dictated by conditions.

True

107

If nothing unusual presents itself, the ____ engine should back back down to the ladder.

third

108

Ventilation of private dwellings can best be accomplished by breaking or opening ____ and ____.

windows and doors

109

Roof operations such as cutting the roof will usually be the duty of a second or additional alarm ____ company.

ladder

110

Venting opposite the attack line will require both recon from the exterior for the fire's location, and proper and accurate reports from the interior.

True

111

Make sure that the position of the engine leaves room for ground ladder access at the back of the ladder, usually about ___ feet.

30

112

Uncoordinated _____ ventilation operations, no matter who is conducting them, is always a mistake and a severe risk to interior personnel.

horizontal

113

____ roofs may allow firefighters to access several rooms from the same vantage point.

Porch

114

VES in newer homes: Windows may not access a floor area, but may be part of a two story foyer or two story family room.

True

115

Windows that are not square, but may be in the shape of an arch or in some other shape almost always open into ____ areas.

two-story

116

Extension prevention takes two forms:

1. Pre-control overhaul
2. Post-control overhaul

117

The purpose of pre-control overhaul is to expose and cut off any extending fire.

True

118

_____ overhaul will be conducted after the fire is under control.

Post overhaul

119

Point of Entry Rule of Thumb:

the most effective path of least resistance

120

Strategy in the initial stages of the fire should be exclusively _____, especially if there is a potential for a life hazard.

offensive

121

Mulitple dwellings will present concerns of a more citical nature because of their ____ and the number of ___ they house.

size, occupants

122

Four types of multiple dwellings:

1. Old law
2. New law
3. Fire resistive
4. New millennium

123

Typically, these buildings are called "tenements" and are commonly constructed of braced or balloon wood frame:

Old Law

124

Old law mutiple dwellings DO NOT typically rise more than ___ stories.

three

125

Old law multiple dwellings built of ordinary construction may be ___ stories.

four

126

The main life hazard and fire spread issue in old law buildings is the ____ that is directly accessible from the interior of the building.

cellar

127

There is an old saying, "lose the stairs, ______.

lose the building

128

Command cannot properly function without communication.

true

129

To best (and most safely) organize the firegroung, command must be _____.

decentralized

130

Old law: An _____ division commander should be the first position assigned.

interior

131

Old Law: Each division, except for the roof unless the incident demands, should have an initial assignment of at least an _____ and a _____ company.

engine, ladder

132

Old Law: Don't forget a tactical reserve of at least another task force (of 2 +1).

True

133

Remeber effectiveness of the command operation is only as good as the information being delivered by the players.

True

134

Firefighters should count the number of the fire escapes on the building and then multiply that number by two:

Fire Escape Rule Of Thumb

135

Old Law: Primary searches should focus on the areas most involved and threatened by the fire.

True

136

Remember that the occupants in teh worst danger are those in the ___ area and the ____ above.

fire, floor

137

Old Law: The first line MUST be placed between the ___ and the ___, while at the same time protecting the interior stairs.

fire and victims

138

Remember, ____ before extinguishment.

confine

139

Old Law: The second (attack) and third (back-up) lines are stretched via the exterior grade-level cellar entrance on Side ___ to attack the fire.

A

140

Old Law: When in doubt, get the bigger line in as a ____ for when more personnel arrive.

backup

141

Old Law: If the buildings have straight run stairs, the well hole may be wide enough to stretch the line straight up, so one length per ___ floors plus one working length will be required.

4

142

The calculation needed to stretch a line between the attack engine and the front door in old law buildings should be the street length plus the ____ length(s) plus the operating length on the fire floor.

stairwell

143

Old Law: For longer stretches, use of a ____ is necessary to keep friction loss and pump pressure to a managable number.

gated wye

144

Old Law: Improper ____, or a lack thereof, is responsible for more burned-down buildings and firefighter injuries than any other tactic-related operation.

ventilation

145

Old Law: The skylight is usually located over the ____.

stairwell

146

Old Law: After opening the scuttle on the roof and venting the top floor, the ___ must be pulled to vent the cockloft.

returns

147

Old Law: Your success or failure in extension prevention operations is directly realted to your knowledge of _____.

building construction

148

Aluminum melts at ____ degrees F.

1,200

149

Carbon monoxide ignites at approximately ____ degrees F.

1,200

150

Old Law: At at top floor fire in an attached building, protect, open, and examine the ____.

cockloft

151

New Law: One of the rules of thumb regarding the old-law difference is that the new law building will be more than ___ feet wide and have more than ____ windows on the A (street) side of the building.

25, 4

152

New law buildings may house __ to __ families.

30 to 40

153

Old Law buildings usually home to no more than __ to __ families.

12 to 16

154

The biggest difference between the new and old law structures, sometimes referred to as apartment buildings, was the ____ of the below grade area.

compartmentation

155

New Law: Laid out in an H, E, T or U fashion (as seen from the roof) the narrow areas between wings, commonly called the ____, can be opened to act as a defencsive fire stop.

throat

156

New Law: The cockloft in these buildings can be ___ feet hight or larger, and be a dusty, dirty lumberyard of wood and debris.

3

157

New Law: On top floor fires a roof division must be established, usually by one of the FIRST arriving ladder companies.

True

158

New Law: To break double-pane top and bottom panes, you may have to swing ___ times.

four

159

Generally, the roof should be cut in an area as directly over the fire as is safely possible. The best tool to determine this will be the ____

TIC

160

The ____ firefighter places his hand on the shoulder of the firefighter making the cut.

guide

161

As long as the cutting firefighter feels the hand on his back, he continues to cut. When the hand is removed, he stops.

True

162

New Law: Cut as close as possible to the seat and on the side of the fire's potential travel path, generally the ____ and/or ____ side.

uphill, downwind

163

New Law: Roof structural members at other than right angles indicate the presence of a ____.

truss

164

New Law: Flat roofs will have a very pronounced pitch from ___ to ___ that acts as a drainage.

front, rear

165

New Law: Most texts recommend an eventual __ x __ foor roof - cut hole.

8 x 8

166

New Law: When cutting roof, it is usually best to make the orientation of your cut longer in the ___ to ___ direction of the building than from side to side.

front, rear

167

At least ___ saws should be on the roof to make cuts, especially if multiple cuts are to be made.

2

168

New Law: Small plunges of the blade into the roof as exam holes called:

Keft cuts

169

New Law: Triangular cuts can be made by cutting ___ Kerf cuts that overlap each other at the edges.

3

170

New Law: A ____ is an area over a center hallway that has adjacent airshafts on each side.

throat

171

New Law: Fires burning on top of floors and cockloft areas in large multiple dwellings can benefit from the trench cut if a throat is present as is usually the case in _____ or double ___ buildings.

H-, E-, T-, U- or double H

172

Interior line placement on safe side of throat in an H-Type building: Lines 1 and 3 do what:

knock down fire from across the shaft

173

Interior line placement on safe side of throat in an H-type building: Line #2 does what:

protects safe side of trench and hallway

174

Taxpayers, strip malls, and row houses are occupancies where trench cuts are NOT usually effective without surrounding a large amount of area the fire while the trench is being cut.

True

175

The key in the control of all fires, but especially in top floor fires, is to _____

"vent early and often"

176

Interior firefighters can recognize the precsence of a shaft by taking notice of interior windows on the ___ and ___ side walls of attached buildings.

B and D

177

Always test your footing whenever operating on a roof, especially where it looks like the roof has been ___ or ___.

repaired or modified

178

Another important factor is the ___ of the shaft

size

179

The most important factor regarding the shaft is the promximity of the shaft to the ____.

main body of fire

180

If you see flame in an apartment and little or no smoke on the exterior as you arrive, expect it to be venting in an _____.

enclosed shaft

181

The only suitable strategy at shaft fires is to launch an aggressive interior attack on the main body of fire while equally aggressive reconnaissance and confinement operations are being extended simultaneously.

True

182

Fire travel from building to building via the open ____ has been the cause of many large fire losses.

cockloft

183

A benefit of attached buildings is that they will offer options in regard to _____ access.

roof

184

In attached buildings, the best way to access the roof will be via ____ or _____.

aerial or ground ladder

185

The next best way to access the roof in attached buildings will be via the ____.

fire escape

186

When it comes to roof access, attached buildings of unequal height must be treated the same way as an unattached building.

True

187

In attached buildings, other than the open stairwell, ____ will be the biggest vertical fire spread concern found inside therse building

concealed spaces

188

Channel rails will be found only in new law apartment buildings of ordindary construction that are over ___ feet wide.

25

189

Roof Access Priorities at Attached Buildings:

1. Interior stairs of adjoining building
2. Aerial
3. Lower floor (below fire floor) of fire building to rear fire escape
4. Rear fire escape via rear yard

190

Roof Access Priorities at Unattached Buildings:

1. Aerial
2. Lower floor (below fire floor) of fire building to rear fire escape
3. Rear fire escape via rear yard

191

In new law buildings, dumbwaiter shafts, are generally found in the ____.

hallway

192

Cut the roof around the ____ to draw the fire up and out, rather than laterally and into the living areas.

chimney

193

Attached buildings: Kitchens and bathrooms are also located back to back so that adjacent apartments as well as stacked apartments can share a common ____.

pipe chase

194

To support the bathroom floor loads and provide for a relatively water-tight floor, about ___ inches of concrete or "mud" is laid atop the unfinished floor.

2

195

The real concern that occrs is to float the 2 inches or more of masonary and still keep the floor level, it is necessary to reduce the size of the joists supporting the floor.

True

196

Tin ceilings: If there are any indications that a backdraft condition may exist, take all necessary precautions to prevent this from happening by first ventilating at the ____ before the ceiling is pulled.

highest point

197

In fires with tin ceilings, a line is required in each involved apartment, as well as a crew of at least ___ firefighters to pull the ceilings.

2

198

Counterbalance stairways are usually found on ___ occupancies.

commercial

199

___ ladders are usually found on residental occupancnies such as multiple dwellings.

Drop

200

Gooseneck ladders are most often locatd at the ____ of the building.

rear

201

Control and protection of the ____ is critical at fires in multiple dwellings.

stairwell

202

This is the most common and dangerous method for fire to extend vertically in multiple dwellings:

open interior stairwells

203

____ is the first and most valuable defense in the recognition of factors that could cause firefighter casualties.

Awareness

204

A ____ across an apartment door is a reliable cue that someone may be inside.

chain

205

___ supplied fires may be recognized by a brighter flame that does not behave as expected when a stream is applied

Gas

206

____ cause increased feflex time in reaching the fire, longer hose stretches, and increased fatigue.

Setbacks

207

Fire-resistive multiple dwellings are often ___ stories in height or more.

6

208

These natural ventilation openings must be opened early to channel smoke and heat into the path of least resistance:

scuttle hatches and skylights

209

In fire-resistive multiple dwellings, the use of ____ or irons substituting a maul for a flat head axe is warranted for gaining entry to these doors

HFT (hydraulic forcible entry tool)

210

The cumbustible ____ is the largest horizontal void space in a combustible multiple dwelling.

cockloft

211

In a fire-resistive multiple dwelling, there is a lack of a combustible _____.

cockloft

212

Characteristics of fire-resistive multiple dwellings:

- Lack of fire escapes
-Lack of cockloft
-Setbacks
-Difficult forcible entry
-Encolsed stairways
-Scissor stairs
-Long hallways
-Dead-end hallways

213

___ stairs are utilized when two stairwells are run in the same shaft.

Scissors

214

A ____ stairwell is one that exits in the same location on each floor.

return

215

Codes in most of fire resistive multiple dwelings require that doors to apartments be ____.

self closing

216

Entry teams should always, when forcing or entering an apartment in fire resisteive multiple dwellings, position themselves on the ____ side of the apartment door.

egress

217

Consider not venting if a ____ fire potential is present.

wind driven

218

In new millenium multiple dwellings steel is mixed with ___, which is mixed with ____. A truly hybrid construction.

wood, aluminum

219

In New Millenium Multiple Dwellings, ____ is also widely used for floor and roof deckings.

plywood

220

Under the building parking in new millenium dwellings, codes require a sprinkler system in these areas that will like be a ___ or ___ system.

dry or pre-action

221

Exterior wall framing in new millenium dwellings will often be constructed of medium gauge ____.

steel

222

In New Millenium Multiple Dwellings, the sheetrock celing was more common in the ____ areas

apartment

223

Ceilings in new millenium multple dwellings, will generally be constructed of either ____ panels in a lightweight steel grid, or ____ attached directly to the ceiling studs.

drop celing panels
sheetrock

224

Brick veneer is an ____ load and also has the capability to shear off the building if the adhering material is compromised by heat or fire.

eccentric

225

Floors in new millennium multiple dwellings will usually be constructed of ___ or ____.

plywood or particleboard

226

Upper floors on new millennium multiple dwellings will likely be supported by _____ I-beams.

laminated wooden

227

New millennium multiple dwellings generally are no more than ___ floors.

six

228

The major advantage the new millennium multiple dwelling has over its older counterparts is the fact that the stairwell is ____.

enclosed

229

Resist the temptation to set up command inside the lobby of the new millennium multiple dwelling because none of the features of the fire-resistive building will be present with the exception of a large lobby

True

230

In New Millennium, the best place to locate the command post will be on the exterior of the building where a two-sided view of the building can be seen.

True

231

Attack, in new millennium dwellings, must be made from the enclosed and designated attack ____.

stairwell

232

In new millennium dwellings, the ___ is the preferred way to get to the roof.

aerial

233

The major concern in regard to fire spread in new millenium multiple dwellings is whether or not the fire has penetrated into the ____ of the building.

concealed spaces

234

Life hazard concerns in ALL multiple dwellings include:

1. Limited egress
2. Large number of occupants
3. Single-room occupancies (SROs)
4. Dogs

235

In a working fire in all multiple dwellings, under no circumstances should firefighters EVER use the ____ stairs of the fire building to reach the roof unless the stairs are remote from the fire area.

interior

236

Thus, ____ hazard is a major concern at any hour of the day in multiple dwellings.

life

237

____ occupancies are common in inner cities and are basically a larger version of the rooming house.

Single-room occupancies (SROs)

238

____ attacks are no exception.

Dog

239

Houses more than one occupancy in a single building:

Mixed-use occupancy

240

Many jurisdictions will refer to mixed-use occupancies as ____.

taxpayers

241

Attached mixed-use occupancies house commercial establishments that front on the main street, while the residential dwellings occupy the ___ floor.

second

242

One or two story ordinary construction, occpied by one or more commercial occupancies:

Taxpayer

243

Taxpayer Differences: New Style (strip mall)

1. Noncombustible construction
2. No cellar present
3. Steel truss roof
4. Drop ceilings

244

Taxpayer Differences: Old Style

1. Ordinary construction
2. Cellar present
3. Wood joist roof
4. Tin and drop ceilings

245

Modern strip malls will be Class ___ construction.

II

246

One-story noncombustible construction, occupied by one or more commercial occupancies:

Strip Mall

247

Taxpayers and mixed-use occupancies will most often be of _____ construction, althouh older mixed-use buildings may be wood frame.

ordinary

248

____ systems and other firefighter friendly entry systems are preferred in these occupancies.

Knox box

249

Commercial occupancies such as strip malls are erected over a ____ foundation.

concrete slab

250

Although ____ in taxpayers are rare, they are common in mixed-use occupancies.

shafts

251

Where the diamond-shaped shaft is present, the parapet will split off in two opposite directions at a ___ angle to accomodate the shaft and then meet again at the other end of the shaft where the parapet wall will be continued.

45

252

Attached cellars will present some of the same fire spread problems as attached cocklofts.

True

253

Fire strategy and tactics, in regards to common cocklofts, should focus on confining the fire to the _____.

building of origin

254

The roof will generally not be cut unless the fire is located on the top flor, or is in or spreads to the ____.

cockloft

255

In any fire where buildings are attached and there is a possibility of a common cockloft, after lines are placed inside the fire building to confine and attack the parent body of fire, a line must be stretched to the ____ floor of the ____ expsoure immediately.

top, leeward

256

The older tin ceilings were generally __ x __ foot sheets.

4 x 8

257

The newer tin ceilings are in the area of __ x__ foot square.

2 x 2

258

A fire in the cockloft will take commitment of several ladder and engine crews, operating at least ___ lines on the top floor.

2

259

Fires that originate in or extend to facades can spread ____ along th exterior of the building.

horizontally

260

Any ladder movement should be either ___ or ____, never retraction or extension because the firefighter on the aerial may get caught in the moving aerial rungs.

rotation or raising

261

____, found mostly on mixed-use occupancies, are masonary additions to the building that cover the facing of the structure.

False fronts

262

Remember that the primary route of exposure is via the ___ as pertaining to smoke

lungs

263

____ undergoes thermal decomposition when exposed to flame or hot metal, and forms hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid as well as other gases including phosgene.

Freon-22

264

In mixed use and taxpayer occuanices, the main life hazard, especially at night, will be to the ____.

residents who live above the store

265

The NFPA requires an outward door swing in assembly occupancies as well as in commercial occupancies with an occupant load of ___ people or more.

50

266

Another egress concern in mixed use and taxpayers is that the exit door is NOT required to swing in the direction of ____, which is out of the structure in most of these stores.

egress

267

Victims located above stores are likely to necessitate rescue via use of ____ devices

aerial

268

Mixed-Use and Taxpayer cellar fires you need to look for an exterior door located at the ____ , especially if the store is located on a corner.

rear

269

If available, this is the best place from which to attack a cellar fire in mixed-use or taxpayers because the outside sidewalk entrance can then be used as a vent point:

exterior door located at the rear

270

Remeber to cut near the front show windows so that the products of combustion will have an escape route.

True

271

Always give electrical wires and attendant equipment a wide berth, at least ___ feet when operating ladders.

10

272

_____ the fireground by assigning command officers to supervise danger areas will contribute to a safer fireground.

Decentralizing

273

In taxpayers and mixed use occupanices, the lower the fire is in the building, the ____ the fire load and attendant fire control concerns will be encountered.

greater

274

Modern strip malls, sometimes called _____ will exhibit some of the same characteristics that all commercial occupancies will display.

new style taxpayers

275

New style strip malls are often built with an additional ____ story above the main store level. When this is the case, the roof will be ____ and dormers will possibly be present.

half, peaked

276

___ ceilings, also called a hanging ceiling, present many concerns to the firefighting force.

Drop

277

The area above the ceiling is often utilized as a return for the HVAC system and is referred to as a _____.

plenum

278

Smoke that violently undulates in the area of the opening is a sign of an impending ____.

explosion

279

The most important act in regard to the firefighter safety in Class II strip malls is to cool the _____ prior to entry.

steel truss roof assembly

280

If superheated gases accumulate in the ____, the potential for a backdraft will exist.

cockloft

281

Protectin of adjacent _____ must be a priority for command when fire involves a strip mall.

exposures

282

____ may be the deciding factor in which side of the mall to protect first.

Propety conservation

283

A size up factor from the roof that may be useful to command in regard to the number of concentrated loads as well as the potential for fire barriers is the number and spacing of the ____ units on the roof.

HVAC

284

____ stores will have numerous heavy suspended loads supported by lightweight chain.

Lighting

285

The major concern with suspended loads is that they may be concealed by ___.

smoke

286

According to NFPA, per 100,000 fires, fire service fatalaties are more likely to occur in ____ buildings than in any other type of occupancy.

vacant

287

____ firefighter deaths per 100,000 fires is about four times more than firefighter death averages in residential structures.

18.4

288

____ means drugs and illegal drug labs.

Illegal manufacturing

289

____ are another preferred place to run the wires because it is easier to disguise them.

Fire escapes

290

Remember that a building on fire is basically a building under _____.

demolition

291

Vacant buildings are also prone to failure because of theft of _____.

building materials

292

There are three types of boards used to seal up vacant buildings:

1. Plywood
2. HUD windows
3. Metal window and door enclosures

293

HUD widows are placed by the _____ until a building is either demolished or renovated, both of which can take a long time to accomplish.

Department of Housing and Urban Development

294

Be aware that in boarded buildings, boards often exist only on the ____ and below, covering ground floor and cellar doors and windows.

first floor

295

The metal screen like enclosures are constructed of galvanized sheet metal, approximately ___ gauge.

15

296

____ enclosures will seal both doors and windows and may be found on all floors and be of varying sizes.

Metal

297

The key to defeating the metal enclosure is to first identify how they are secured.

True

298

The three types of securing methods for metal enclosures:

1. Metal tab and turnbuckle
2. Anchor-head and ratcheted cable
3. Side pin

299

The metal tab which appears on the exterior of the enclosure will have an additional tab that protrudes at ___ degrees to the entrance.

90

300

The first and quickest way to defeat the side pin method is to use a ____.

metal saw

301

Use the metal saw and make plunge cuts about ___ inch away from the keyholes and toward the edge.

1

302

The first and probably the most important concern is what the renovation has done to the ____ and its components.

building

303

Renovations to roof and floor systems make extensive use of truss and laminated I-beams.

True

304

Truss members usually run from the top and bottom chords at ___ degree angles.

45

305

A popular wall covering designed to give the building's exterior a facelift is to attach ____ panels to the wall.

Styrofoam

306

Scaffolding is usually constructed of ___ or ___, possibly a combination of both.

wood or metal

307

The fire service routinely suffers approximately ___ line-of-duty deaths per year.

100

308

A safety attitude begins with self-discipline.

True

309

The ____ is a simple method of passing hazard information in an efficient manner to the entire department.

Exceptional Response Report

310

Apparatus ____ is probably the most important initial action on the fireground.

positioning

311

Apparatus ____ is the determining factor in apparatus positioning.

function

312

Aerial devices must be kept a minimum of __ feet from power lines at all times.

10

313

It is extremely important that initial arriving companies announce their arrival along with their function.

True

314

Scene assignment SOPs should be directed at ____, no first due.

first-arriving

315

The best way to address apparatus positioning is by establishing a ____ regarding initial scene assignment.

SOP

316

On high rise fires, the company that must be given a safe key position closest to the building is the ____ or whatever unit carries additional SCBA cylinders.

Mask Service Unit (MSU)

317

____ is a term used when suppy and attack engines switch responsibilities and positions.

Bumping

318

Bumping occurs most often on a ____ street when the first two engines arrive in quick sequence before the ladder company.

narrow

319

In many departments the ___ engine backs down to the ladder company.

third

320

The ground ladder is usually the ___ foot roof ladder or the two-section 35 foot ladder, which is ___ feet bedded.

20, 20

321

Leave at least ___ feet between the engine and the ladder so ground ladder access is not impeded.

30

322

If two ladders are on the response, let the ____ ladder take the front of the building while the second ladder accesses the roof from the adjacent side street, or vice-versa.

first

323

Dead-end streets generally fall into three categories:

1. Long dead-end (no hydrant IN block)
2. Short dead-end (no hydrant ON block)
3. Dead-end street (long or short with hydrants on the block)

324

If the building is three stories in height or less, only ____ ladders may be necessary to access the upper floors and the roof.

ground

325

For dead-ends with no hydrants, the attack operation will most likely depend on the _____ and the _____.

-length of the street
-location of the fire building relative to the intersection

326

If the residual pressure drops by 5% or less after the first handline is supplied, ___ more lines of equal diameter can be supplied from that hydrant.

three

327

If the pressure drop is 10%, only ___ lines of the same diameter may be supplied.

two

328

If the pressure drop is 20%, only ___ line can be supplied.

one

329

Any drop greater than 20% should indicate that no more lines can be supplied by this hydrant.

True

330

The ability (or lack thereof) of a firefighter or officer to adapt to the situation is called _____.

functional fixity

331

One of the best improvisational tools there is in regard to forcible entry in a non-emergency situation is the ____

butter knife

332

One of the best improvisational aids in salvage work is ____, ____, and ____/

plastic sheeting
plastic tie wraps
duct tape

333

The most important factor regarding the tactical worksheet is that it must be kept ____.

simple

334

Two forms that work well for tactical worksheets are the ____ and the _____.

-fill in the blank type
-checklist-type

335

ICS form page 1:

A place where a sketch of the incident can be drawn

336

ICS form page 2:

A place to write a brief narative

337

ICS form page 3:

A generic command chart

338

ICS form page 4:

A resources summary sheet

339

The incident commander must establish a command organization that is directly proportional to the emergency at hand.

True

340

The best way to provide for the safety of operating personnel at the scene of a large emergency is to ____ the fireground.

decentralize

341

The ideal span of control, most sources will tell you, is ____ subordinates to one supevisor.

5

342

When companies are operating in a safe area such as out of the collapse zone during a defensive operation, ____ may be increased.

span of control

343

The more danger in the particular operation, the ____ the span of control should be.

narrower

344

The ____ team should liason with both the safety officer and the IC.

RIC

345

Mayday: At least ____ additional alarms should be struck.

2

346

At the very least, RIC team personnel should be trained in the basics of firefighter assessment and rescue.

True

347

There are two general types of emergency transmissions on the fireground:

1. Top-down emergency transmissoin
2. Bottom-up emergency transmission

348

Mayday: The key to transmitting the bottom-up emergency transmission is to utilize an audible alarm such as the ___ unit.

PASS

349

This is the most common type of perimeter control used on the fireground:

Single tape at chest level: Unrestricted firefighter access

350

This is used when the hazard necessitates that only personnel essential to the operation enter the area:

Parallel double tape: Limited firefighter access

351

Perimeter Control: This type indicates an area where no personnel are permitted under any circumstance:

Double barrier tape run in an X or criss-crossed fashion

352

A ____ in the floor is usually a floor saddle that separates rooms.

bump

353

When FF needs to clear hanging obstacles, the key here is to reduce your profile by turning your cylinder down toward the floor, preferably into a _____.

corner

354

The "magic rope" was simply a ___ foot length of small diameter utility rope, stuffed in the turnout coat pocket.

25

355

If the aerial device cannot be raised above the wall, it must be kept away for a distance at least equal to the height of the wall above the device, plus ___ feet for every flor in the building.

5

356

When operating aerial devices, not only must the apparatus be positioned out of the collapse zones, but the aerial device itself must also be clear of the potential collapse area.

True

357

Master streams dump as much as ____ gallons per minute on the building.

1000

358

____ will allow the nozzle to operate in the same manner as the firefighter on the tip of the aerial.

Halyards

359

A supply line of ___ feet is best.

100

360

It is called the 75-80-85 rule of thumb:

75 degree angle for the ladder
80 psi nozzle pressure (solid bore)
85 feet of elevation

361

Remember that force is equal to ____ multiplied by _____.

mass, acceleration

362

_____ are high volume, high impact weapons against fire.

Master streams

363

A ____ should be used to guide the ladder operator on the turntable.

spotter

364

Three levels of Vacant buildings:

Entry permitted (Level 1)
Enter with extreme caution (Level 2)
No entry (Level 3)

365

If there are multiple floors with holes, the ___ symbol may be used.

FO-M

366

A safe and orderly _____ is the result of effective planning and cooperation among the participants.

demobilization

367

____, ____, and ____ can sometime be described as the overflow drain of the soul.

Basements, attics, garages

368

_____ is the glue that holds the factors of the fireground coordination triangle together.

Command

369

Old Law Construction:

-CELLAR accessible from interior
-WOOD Stairs
-Cellar ceiling EXPOSED
-Ventilation DIFFICULTY
-Shaft windows located in APARTMENTS

370

New Law Construction:

-BASEMENT access only from exterior
-NONcombustible stairs
-Basement ceiling PROTECTED
-More opportunities for ventilation
-Shaft windows located in HALLWAYS and APARTMENTS