Flashcards in Fireground Strategies Deck (370):
_____ fires account for a great majority of fire deaths in the United States each year.
The fact that most fatal fires occur at private dwellings can be attributed to five factors:
1. Unsafe sleeping habits
2. Carelessness and indifference
3. Improper storage and housekeeping
5. Home repair specialists
Many people in private dwellings sleep on the floors _____
In private dwellings, ____ doors have saved many lives because they act like an initial barrier to the products of combustion.
____ operations are directly aimed at these areas above grade.
Smoke detector batteries should be changed ____.
twice a year
The open door coupled with the ventilation opening the VES team has just created (most effective path of least resistance for a hoseline-driven or stariwell driven fir) can cause fire to spread in that direction with great speed.
Many people are burned and killed each year due to fires caused by ____ carelessness.
When first arriving at a fire in a home with a pool, inquire where the ____ are stored and take actions to safeguard firefighters from this non-routine exposure.
_____ goes hand in hand with carelessness and indifference.
____ is probably our greatest ally against fire and subsequent death in all residential dwellings.
Remeber that the primary mission of the fire service is ______.
Firefighting Concerns in Private Dwellings:
1. Open stairways
2. Excessvie and improper storage and debris
3. Setbacks and landscaping obstacles
4. Combustible exterior
5. HVAC systems
6. Voids in construction
7. The attached garage
8. Dangerous peaked-roof conditions
9. Converted private dwellings
Although not exclusively to the private dwelling, the ____ is ususally the focal point when addressing concerns of floor-to-floor fire spread.
In open stairways, ____ heat transfer will be the culprit here.
In multiple dwellings, apartments usually only occupy ____ level.
In private dwellings, it's common to find multiple levels that are not _____.
____ operations are extremely effective for quickly accessing the upper floors and circumventing the open stairway that may be impassable as an access and escape route.
After breaking the windows, the first thing to do is to ____ to let the room vent for a few seconds.
For this reason, firefighters should first ___ the floor before sounding it.
Hoselines must also be in place to protect the stairs, especially if a _____ fire is in progress.
Hoselines protecting the stairs cannot be withdrawn until all personnel operating ____ the fire are confirmed to be out of the building.
A proactive self-help action that can be taken by the team going above the fire is to ____ the exterior of the building for exit paths and the location and extent of fire and its likely path in the structure.
____ mansion condtions or the "stuffed building" syndrome have an increased fire and possibly building load and will hamper hoseline advancement, spread fire like an arsonist's trailer would, and complicate search ops.
____ on private dwellings will usually cause a delay in getting the first line into operation, may disallow aerial operations, and will delay the raising of ground ladders.
_____ exterior walls are often responsible for extremely rapid-fire spread from floor to floor and from building to building.
Although it is usually no acceptable to utilize the hydrant in front of the building, one such area where it may be acceptable is when a ____ is encountered.
Especially in estate homes, the building may be more than ___ feet from the street.
____ exteriors are a major fire spread concern, both inside and outside the fire building.
The extednding of fire from floor to floor via the building's exterior is also known as _____.
Incident commanders and firefighters on the exterior must be cognizant of THIS fire spread hazard, and communicate any exterior-related fire spread:
Where asphalt siding is present, THIS may be the most important tactic that prevents spread to the upper floors and to adjacent structures:
place and apply a hose stream directly to the combustible exterior
A larger concern with combustible exteriors is the possibility of fire spread from building to building via ___ heat.
Exposure walls should be kept ___ to combat the transmission of radiant heat from the parent body of fire.
It will be most effective if the line can alternate between the combustible walls of to both the ____ and the _____.
fire building and exposure
Operational Strategy for Exposures with Combustible Exterior Walls: (9)
1. Assign a division supervisor
2. Conduct a primary search and evacuate building
3. Utilize large diameter handline or master stream on exposed wall
4. Stretch hand lines into the exposure to protect against fire spread
5. Horizontally and vertically vent as necessary
6. Close windows on exposed side
7. THEN open windows and doors on unexposed side to dissipate heat
8. Supply FDC
9. Request progress reports
This system should be shut down as a matter of procedure and then its entire length checked for signs of fire:
Commercial occupancies will usually position HVAC units on the ____ of the structure.
If there is more than one compressor unit present, expect ____ zone heating and air conditioning.
Ensure all ____ units are shut down to prevent fire spread into other areas of the dwelling via these avenues.
Some newer private dwellings, many of those built of lightweight wood truss, have the HVAC unit located in the ____.
____ are boxed-out areas that are used to house wires, ventilation systems for stoves, and piping.
The strategic goal is to ____ the fire to the garage.
Another area of concern, especially in newer private dwellings, is the presence of a central _____ system.
Many private dwellings, especially those built during and after the 1950s, will have the garage attached as part of the dwelling structure.
Irregardless of the orientation, there will nearly always be a door leading from the garage into the main living area.
Attached garage fires will generally be ____ or ____ line fires.
three or four
In reference to garage fires, this is the critical point of protection in regard to life safety:
door by which occupants access the garage
The first line in a garage fire is a _____ line.
The other time a confinement line is used is for a _____ fire in an old law multiple dwelling.
Companies venting the roof must take care to avoid spreading fire into windows and eaves of the dwelling proper by positioning the vent hole in an area that is as remote from the dwelling as possible, wind permitting.
Make sure all garage doors are opened to accelerate the vent operation, and prop the doors open with a tool so they will not close.
If the garage has no ventilation openings, which is prevalent in some two-story platform frames, ______ ventilation may be required AFTER the fire is definitely knocked down.
For safety purposed, unless there is victim that must be protected, all initial attacks should be made from _____ the overhead garage door.
A good majority of private dwellings have ____ roofs.
Roof ____ is also a major consideration during roof ops.
Peaked roofs are constructed in one of three ways. The construction made up of narrow furring strips spaced several inches apart is the WEAKEST of the non-truss roof types.
Roof rafters in peaked roofs are spaced anywhere from ____ to ____ feet and covered with wood planking or plywood.
12 to 24
This type of roof is found in newer construction and is common in housing developments:
peaked truss roof
The peaked truss roof offers the least amount of support in regard to spacing and are usually sloped at least ___ degrees.
The peaked truss roof trusses are usually spaced ____ feet on center.
There is NO ridgepole found in peaked truss roof construction.
Peaked truss roofs should only be cut from an aerial device.
In addition to minimal support, the peaked roof is constructed of lightweight __ x __ inch wood members that are joined together by she metal surface fasteners.
2 x 4
These type shingles, although relatively easy to cut through and remove, are prone to decay and mildew, making them slippery:
Wood shake shingles
By far, the most dangerous type roof coverings are those constructed from more substantial material such as:
These types of roofs can be extremely slippery when they begin to melt causing firefighter not properly secured to lose his balance:
One expert recommends throwing a heavy tarp over solar panels to eliminate solar reception capability of the panels.
A roof with a slope of ___ degrees or less is relatively safe to operate on without a roof ladder.
Any roof over ___ degrees and up to ___ degrees should mandate the use of at least a roof ladder.
A roof with a slope greater than ____ degrees should not be walked on at all.
The lack of ______ that is usually found in multiple dwellings and the limited _____ provided by fewer ways to get out of the structure have contributed to many multiple fatality fires.
The major concern with illegal conversions is that there is usually no ______.
secondary means of egress.
Many times, the only way into (and out of) the upper floor will be by way of ____.
In fact, as a matter of routine, ladders should be raised to all sides of the structures by the ____ team for secondary egress from the structure.
Estate homes are single family private dwellings with square footage in excess of ____ square feet.
Estate Homes: Exterior walls may be ____ or _____.
plywood or chipboard
The ____ estate homes look like erector sets.
The rule of thumb to follow is the bigger the house, the further the ____ from the street.
Estate Homes: Foyers will generally be over ___ feet high.
There will usually be a large chandelier suspended from the center of the entranceway foyer that can weigh over ____ lbs, all suspended by a light steel chain.
Ceilings of ___ feet and higher are common in the room of estate homes.
Floor-to-floor window spacing in estate homes may be ___ feet or more as compared to the standard 10 feet.
Columns in estate homes are more often than not a large engineered laminated wood beam hat may be as thick as ___ inches.
Some estate homes will have what is termed an English or _____, which is found when land at the rear of the house slopes or is graded downward.
Estate Homes: Make sure, even if attacking from the rear, that the initial line protects the _____ inside the main living area first before seeking alternative hose line entry points.
English or walk-out basements have ___ stories at the front and ____ stories at the rear.
Jacuzzi tubs represent a CONCENTRATED LOAD, and are built as platforms.
Access to the attic in most estate homes is via a flimsy, spring-loaded drop-down stairwell that is rated for about ___ pounds.
There are 5 critical interior fire control factors in their and every building fire:
____ is nothing more than compressed sawdust and recycled plastic.
The 3 principles of the Fire Coordination Triangle:
1. Search & Rescue
2. Fire Attack
A complete triangle will support the center of the triangle which is _____.
To be effective, command must provide the following:
Primary search efforts should be focused on removing those in the areas of the fire first ( Fire Floor - Immediate fire area followed by adjacent areas), then checking all other ares beginning with the floor ____ the fire.
Class I Rescue:
-The rescuer(s) know the location of the victim
-Making the rescue DOES NOT put the rescuer or victim in any great danger
Class II Rescue:
-The rescuer(s) knows the location of the victim
-The rescuer(s) must put him or herself and the victim in harm's way
Class III Rescue:
-The rescuer(s) DOES NOT know the location of the victim
-The rescuer(s) must put him or herself and the victim in harm's way, often in extreme danger
The initial attack line must be stretched via the safest, ______ to place the line between victims and the fire.
most effective path of least resistance
If a third line must be stretched, it must access the building by a different means that the first two lines.
It is best to hoist the line up the ____ of the building.
In cases where the first and second arrived engine companies arrive before the ladder company, the ____ engine company can "bump" the first arriving engine.
After being "bumped" the first arriving engine moves up and becomes the _____, while the second engine takes the building and becomes the ____ engine.
Bumping: The second engine's position will be ____ the building leaving room for the ladder company.
If a forward lay hydrant-to-fire method is used, the first arriving company should also initiate ______.
Third and later-arriving engines may take positions as dictated by conditions.
If nothing unusual presents itself, the ____ engine should back back down to the ladder.
Ventilation of private dwellings can best be accomplished by breaking or opening ____ and ____.
windows and doors
Roof operations such as cutting the roof will usually be the duty of a second or additional alarm ____ company.
Venting opposite the attack line will require both recon from the exterior for the fire's location, and proper and accurate reports from the interior.
Make sure that the position of the engine leaves room for ground ladder access at the back of the ladder, usually about ___ feet.
Uncoordinated _____ ventilation operations, no matter who is conducting them, is always a mistake and a severe risk to interior personnel.
____ roofs may allow firefighters to access several rooms from the same vantage point.
VES in newer homes: Windows may not access a floor area, but may be part of a two story foyer or two story family room.
Windows that are not square, but may be in the shape of an arch or in some other shape almost always open into ____ areas.
Extension prevention takes two forms:
1. Pre-control overhaul
2. Post-control overhaul
The purpose of pre-control overhaul is to expose and cut off any extending fire.
_____ overhaul will be conducted after the fire is under control.
Point of Entry Rule of Thumb:
the most effective path of least resistance
Strategy in the initial stages of the fire should be exclusively _____, especially if there is a potential for a life hazard.
Mulitple dwellings will present concerns of a more citical nature because of their ____ and the number of ___ they house.
Four types of multiple dwellings:
1. Old law
2. New law
3. Fire resistive
4. New millennium
Typically, these buildings are called "tenements" and are commonly constructed of braced or balloon wood frame:
Old law mutiple dwellings DO NOT typically rise more than ___ stories.
Old law multiple dwellings built of ordinary construction may be ___ stories.
The main life hazard and fire spread issue in old law buildings is the ____ that is directly accessible from the interior of the building.
There is an old saying, "lose the stairs, ______.
lose the building
Command cannot properly function without communication.
To best (and most safely) organize the firegroung, command must be _____.
Old law: An _____ division commander should be the first position assigned.
Old Law: Each division, except for the roof unless the incident demands, should have an initial assignment of at least an _____ and a _____ company.
Old Law: Don't forget a tactical reserve of at least another task force (of 2 +1).
Remeber effectiveness of the command operation is only as good as the information being delivered by the players.
Firefighters should count the number of the fire escapes on the building and then multiply that number by two:
Fire Escape Rule Of Thumb
Old Law: Primary searches should focus on the areas most involved and threatened by the fire.
Remember that the occupants in teh worst danger are those in the ___ area and the ____ above.
Old Law: The first line MUST be placed between the ___ and the ___, while at the same time protecting the interior stairs.
fire and victims
Remember, ____ before extinguishment.
Old Law: The second (attack) and third (back-up) lines are stretched via the exterior grade-level cellar entrance on Side ___ to attack the fire.
Old Law: When in doubt, get the bigger line in as a ____ for when more personnel arrive.
Old Law: If the buildings have straight run stairs, the well hole may be wide enough to stretch the line straight up, so one length per ___ floors plus one working length will be required.
The calculation needed to stretch a line between the attack engine and the front door in old law buildings should be the street length plus the ____ length(s) plus the operating length on the fire floor.
Old Law: For longer stretches, use of a ____ is necessary to keep friction loss and pump pressure to a managable number.
Old Law: Improper ____, or a lack thereof, is responsible for more burned-down buildings and firefighter injuries than any other tactic-related operation.
Old Law: The skylight is usually located over the ____.
Old Law: After opening the scuttle on the roof and venting the top floor, the ___ must be pulled to vent the cockloft.
Old Law: Your success or failure in extension prevention operations is directly realted to your knowledge of _____.
Aluminum melts at ____ degrees F.
Carbon monoxide ignites at approximately ____ degrees F.
Old Law: At at top floor fire in an attached building, protect, open, and examine the ____.
New Law: One of the rules of thumb regarding the old-law difference is that the new law building will be more than ___ feet wide and have more than ____ windows on the A (street) side of the building.
New law buildings may house __ to __ families.
30 to 40
Old Law buildings usually home to no more than __ to __ families.
12 to 16
The biggest difference between the new and old law structures, sometimes referred to as apartment buildings, was the ____ of the below grade area.
New Law: Laid out in an H, E, T or U fashion (as seen from the roof) the narrow areas between wings, commonly called the ____, can be opened to act as a defencsive fire stop.
New Law: The cockloft in these buildings can be ___ feet hight or larger, and be a dusty, dirty lumberyard of wood and debris.
New Law: On top floor fires a roof division must be established, usually by one of the FIRST arriving ladder companies.
New Law: To break double-pane top and bottom panes, you may have to swing ___ times.
Generally, the roof should be cut in an area as directly over the fire as is safely possible. The best tool to determine this will be the ____
The ____ firefighter places his hand on the shoulder of the firefighter making the cut.
As long as the cutting firefighter feels the hand on his back, he continues to cut. When the hand is removed, he stops.
New Law: Cut as close as possible to the seat and on the side of the fire's potential travel path, generally the ____ and/or ____ side.
New Law: Roof structural members at other than right angles indicate the presence of a ____.
New Law: Flat roofs will have a very pronounced pitch from ___ to ___ that acts as a drainage.
New Law: Most texts recommend an eventual __ x __ foor roof - cut hole.
8 x 8
New Law: When cutting roof, it is usually best to make the orientation of your cut longer in the ___ to ___ direction of the building than from side to side.
At least ___ saws should be on the roof to make cuts, especially if multiple cuts are to be made.
New Law: Small plunges of the blade into the roof as exam holes called:
New Law: Triangular cuts can be made by cutting ___ Kerf cuts that overlap each other at the edges.
New Law: A ____ is an area over a center hallway that has adjacent airshafts on each side.
New Law: Fires burning on top of floors and cockloft areas in large multiple dwellings can benefit from the trench cut if a throat is present as is usually the case in _____ or double ___ buildings.
H-, E-, T-, U- or double H
Interior line placement on safe side of throat in an H-Type building: Lines 1 and 3 do what:
knock down fire from across the shaft
Interior line placement on safe side of throat in an H-type building: Line #2 does what:
protects safe side of trench and hallway
Taxpayers, strip malls, and row houses are occupancies where trench cuts are NOT usually effective without surrounding a large amount of area the fire while the trench is being cut.
The key in the control of all fires, but especially in top floor fires, is to _____
"vent early and often"
Interior firefighters can recognize the precsence of a shaft by taking notice of interior windows on the ___ and ___ side walls of attached buildings.
B and D
Always test your footing whenever operating on a roof, especially where it looks like the roof has been ___ or ___.
repaired or modified
Another important factor is the ___ of the shaft
The most important factor regarding the shaft is the promximity of the shaft to the ____.
main body of fire
If you see flame in an apartment and little or no smoke on the exterior as you arrive, expect it to be venting in an _____.
The only suitable strategy at shaft fires is to launch an aggressive interior attack on the main body of fire while equally aggressive reconnaissance and confinement operations are being extended simultaneously.
Fire travel from building to building via the open ____ has been the cause of many large fire losses.
A benefit of attached buildings is that they will offer options in regard to _____ access.
In attached buildings, the best way to access the roof will be via ____ or _____.
aerial or ground ladder
The next best way to access the roof in attached buildings will be via the ____.
When it comes to roof access, attached buildings of unequal height must be treated the same way as an unattached building.
In attached buildings, other than the open stairwell, ____ will be the biggest vertical fire spread concern found inside therse building
Channel rails will be found only in new law apartment buildings of ordindary construction that are over ___ feet wide.
Roof Access Priorities at Attached Buildings:
1. Interior stairs of adjoining building
3. Lower floor (below fire floor) of fire building to rear fire escape
4. Rear fire escape via rear yard
Roof Access Priorities at Unattached Buildings:
2. Lower floor (below fire floor) of fire building to rear fire escape
3. Rear fire escape via rear yard
In new law buildings, dumbwaiter shafts, are generally found in the ____.
Cut the roof around the ____ to draw the fire up and out, rather than laterally and into the living areas.
Attached buildings: Kitchens and bathrooms are also located back to back so that adjacent apartments as well as stacked apartments can share a common ____.
To support the bathroom floor loads and provide for a relatively water-tight floor, about ___ inches of concrete or "mud" is laid atop the unfinished floor.
The real concern that occrs is to float the 2 inches or more of masonary and still keep the floor level, it is necessary to reduce the size of the joists supporting the floor.
Tin ceilings: If there are any indications that a backdraft condition may exist, take all necessary precautions to prevent this from happening by first ventilating at the ____ before the ceiling is pulled.
In fires with tin ceilings, a line is required in each involved apartment, as well as a crew of at least ___ firefighters to pull the ceilings.
Counterbalance stairways are usually found on ___ occupancies.
___ ladders are usually found on residental occupancnies such as multiple dwellings.
Gooseneck ladders are most often locatd at the ____ of the building.
Control and protection of the ____ is critical at fires in multiple dwellings.
This is the most common and dangerous method for fire to extend vertically in multiple dwellings:
open interior stairwells
____ is the first and most valuable defense in the recognition of factors that could cause firefighter casualties.
A ____ across an apartment door is a reliable cue that someone may be inside.
___ supplied fires may be recognized by a brighter flame that does not behave as expected when a stream is applied
____ cause increased feflex time in reaching the fire, longer hose stretches, and increased fatigue.
Fire-resistive multiple dwellings are often ___ stories in height or more.
These natural ventilation openings must be opened early to channel smoke and heat into the path of least resistance:
scuttle hatches and skylights
In fire-resistive multiple dwellings, the use of ____ or irons substituting a maul for a flat head axe is warranted for gaining entry to these doors
HFT (hydraulic forcible entry tool)
The cumbustible ____ is the largest horizontal void space in a combustible multiple dwelling.
In a fire-resistive multiple dwelling, there is a lack of a combustible _____.
Characteristics of fire-resistive multiple dwellings:
- Lack of fire escapes
-Lack of cockloft
-Difficult forcible entry
___ stairs are utilized when two stairwells are run in the same shaft.
A ____ stairwell is one that exits in the same location on each floor.
Codes in most of fire resistive multiple dwelings require that doors to apartments be ____.
Entry teams should always, when forcing or entering an apartment in fire resisteive multiple dwellings, position themselves on the ____ side of the apartment door.
Consider not venting if a ____ fire potential is present.
In new millenium multiple dwellings steel is mixed with ___, which is mixed with ____. A truly hybrid construction.
In New Millenium Multiple Dwellings, ____ is also widely used for floor and roof deckings.
Under the building parking in new millenium dwellings, codes require a sprinkler system in these areas that will like be a ___ or ___ system.
dry or pre-action
Exterior wall framing in new millenium dwellings will often be constructed of medium gauge ____.
In New Millenium Multiple Dwellings, the sheetrock celing was more common in the ____ areas
Ceilings in new millenium multple dwellings, will generally be constructed of either ____ panels in a lightweight steel grid, or ____ attached directly to the ceiling studs.
drop celing panels
Brick veneer is an ____ load and also has the capability to shear off the building if the adhering material is compromised by heat or fire.
Floors in new millennium multiple dwellings will usually be constructed of ___ or ____.
plywood or particleboard
Upper floors on new millennium multiple dwellings will likely be supported by _____ I-beams.
New millennium multiple dwellings generally are no more than ___ floors.
The major advantage the new millennium multiple dwelling has over its older counterparts is the fact that the stairwell is ____.
Resist the temptation to set up command inside the lobby of the new millennium multiple dwelling because none of the features of the fire-resistive building will be present with the exception of a large lobby
In New Millennium, the best place to locate the command post will be on the exterior of the building where a two-sided view of the building can be seen.
Attack, in new millennium dwellings, must be made from the enclosed and designated attack ____.
In new millennium dwellings, the ___ is the preferred way to get to the roof.
The major concern in regard to fire spread in new millenium multiple dwellings is whether or not the fire has penetrated into the ____ of the building.
Life hazard concerns in ALL multiple dwellings include:
1. Limited egress
2. Large number of occupants
3. Single-room occupancies (SROs)
In a working fire in all multiple dwellings, under no circumstances should firefighters EVER use the ____ stairs of the fire building to reach the roof unless the stairs are remote from the fire area.
Thus, ____ hazard is a major concern at any hour of the day in multiple dwellings.
____ occupancies are common in inner cities and are basically a larger version of the rooming house.
Single-room occupancies (SROs)
____ attacks are no exception.
Houses more than one occupancy in a single building:
Many jurisdictions will refer to mixed-use occupancies as ____.
Attached mixed-use occupancies house commercial establishments that front on the main street, while the residential dwellings occupy the ___ floor.
One or two story ordinary construction, occpied by one or more commercial occupancies:
Taxpayer Differences: New Style (strip mall)
1. Noncombustible construction
2. No cellar present
3. Steel truss roof
4. Drop ceilings
Taxpayer Differences: Old Style
1. Ordinary construction
2. Cellar present
3. Wood joist roof
4. Tin and drop ceilings
Modern strip malls will be Class ___ construction.
One-story noncombustible construction, occupied by one or more commercial occupancies:
Taxpayers and mixed-use occupancies will most often be of _____ construction, althouh older mixed-use buildings may be wood frame.
____ systems and other firefighter friendly entry systems are preferred in these occupancies.
Commercial occupancies such as strip malls are erected over a ____ foundation.
Although ____ in taxpayers are rare, they are common in mixed-use occupancies.
Where the diamond-shaped shaft is present, the parapet will split off in two opposite directions at a ___ angle to accomodate the shaft and then meet again at the other end of the shaft where the parapet wall will be continued.
Attached cellars will present some of the same fire spread problems as attached cocklofts.
Fire strategy and tactics, in regards to common cocklofts, should focus on confining the fire to the _____.
building of origin
The roof will generally not be cut unless the fire is located on the top flor, or is in or spreads to the ____.
In any fire where buildings are attached and there is a possibility of a common cockloft, after lines are placed inside the fire building to confine and attack the parent body of fire, a line must be stretched to the ____ floor of the ____ expsoure immediately.
The older tin ceilings were generally __ x __ foot sheets.
4 x 8
The newer tin ceilings are in the area of __ x__ foot square.
2 x 2
A fire in the cockloft will take commitment of several ladder and engine crews, operating at least ___ lines on the top floor.
Fires that originate in or extend to facades can spread ____ along th exterior of the building.
Any ladder movement should be either ___ or ____, never retraction or extension because the firefighter on the aerial may get caught in the moving aerial rungs.
rotation or raising
____, found mostly on mixed-use occupancies, are masonary additions to the building that cover the facing of the structure.
Remember that the primary route of exposure is via the ___ as pertaining to smoke
____ undergoes thermal decomposition when exposed to flame or hot metal, and forms hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid as well as other gases including phosgene.
In mixed use and taxpayer occuanices, the main life hazard, especially at night, will be to the ____.
residents who live above the store
The NFPA requires an outward door swing in assembly occupancies as well as in commercial occupancies with an occupant load of ___ people or more.
Another egress concern in mixed use and taxpayers is that the exit door is NOT required to swing in the direction of ____, which is out of the structure in most of these stores.
Victims located above stores are likely to necessitate rescue via use of ____ devices
Mixed-Use and Taxpayer cellar fires you need to look for an exterior door located at the ____ , especially if the store is located on a corner.
If available, this is the best place from which to attack a cellar fire in mixed-use or taxpayers because the outside sidewalk entrance can then be used as a vent point:
exterior door located at the rear
Remeber to cut near the front show windows so that the products of combustion will have an escape route.
Always give electrical wires and attendant equipment a wide berth, at least ___ feet when operating ladders.
_____ the fireground by assigning command officers to supervise danger areas will contribute to a safer fireground.
In taxpayers and mixed use occupanices, the lower the fire is in the building, the ____ the fire load and attendant fire control concerns will be encountered.
Modern strip malls, sometimes called _____ will exhibit some of the same characteristics that all commercial occupancies will display.
new style taxpayers
New style strip malls are often built with an additional ____ story above the main store level. When this is the case, the roof will be ____ and dormers will possibly be present.
___ ceilings, also called a hanging ceiling, present many concerns to the firefighting force.
The area above the ceiling is often utilized as a return for the HVAC system and is referred to as a _____.
Smoke that violently undulates in the area of the opening is a sign of an impending ____.
The most important act in regard to the firefighter safety in Class II strip malls is to cool the _____ prior to entry.
steel truss roof assembly
If superheated gases accumulate in the ____, the potential for a backdraft will exist.
Protectin of adjacent _____ must be a priority for command when fire involves a strip mall.
____ may be the deciding factor in which side of the mall to protect first.
A size up factor from the roof that may be useful to command in regard to the number of concentrated loads as well as the potential for fire barriers is the number and spacing of the ____ units on the roof.
____ stores will have numerous heavy suspended loads supported by lightweight chain.
The major concern with suspended loads is that they may be concealed by ___.
According to NFPA, per 100,000 fires, fire service fatalaties are more likely to occur in ____ buildings than in any other type of occupancy.
____ firefighter deaths per 100,000 fires is about four times more than firefighter death averages in residential structures.
____ means drugs and illegal drug labs.
____ are another preferred place to run the wires because it is easier to disguise them.
Remember that a building on fire is basically a building under _____.
Vacant buildings are also prone to failure because of theft of _____.
There are three types of boards used to seal up vacant buildings:
2. HUD windows
3. Metal window and door enclosures
HUD widows are placed by the _____ until a building is either demolished or renovated, both of which can take a long time to accomplish.
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Be aware that in boarded buildings, boards often exist only on the ____ and below, covering ground floor and cellar doors and windows.
The metal screen like enclosures are constructed of galvanized sheet metal, approximately ___ gauge.
____ enclosures will seal both doors and windows and may be found on all floors and be of varying sizes.
The key to defeating the metal enclosure is to first identify how they are secured.
The three types of securing methods for metal enclosures:
1. Metal tab and turnbuckle
2. Anchor-head and ratcheted cable
3. Side pin
The metal tab which appears on the exterior of the enclosure will have an additional tab that protrudes at ___ degrees to the entrance.
The first and quickest way to defeat the side pin method is to use a ____.
Use the metal saw and make plunge cuts about ___ inch away from the keyholes and toward the edge.
The first and probably the most important concern is what the renovation has done to the ____ and its components.
Renovations to roof and floor systems make extensive use of truss and laminated I-beams.
Truss members usually run from the top and bottom chords at ___ degree angles.
A popular wall covering designed to give the building's exterior a facelift is to attach ____ panels to the wall.
Scaffolding is usually constructed of ___ or ___, possibly a combination of both.
wood or metal
The fire service routinely suffers approximately ___ line-of-duty deaths per year.
A safety attitude begins with self-discipline.
The ____ is a simple method of passing hazard information in an efficient manner to the entire department.
Exceptional Response Report
Apparatus ____ is probably the most important initial action on the fireground.
Apparatus ____ is the determining factor in apparatus positioning.
Aerial devices must be kept a minimum of __ feet from power lines at all times.
It is extremely important that initial arriving companies announce their arrival along with their function.
Scene assignment SOPs should be directed at ____, no first due.
The best way to address apparatus positioning is by establishing a ____ regarding initial scene assignment.
On high rise fires, the company that must be given a safe key position closest to the building is the ____ or whatever unit carries additional SCBA cylinders.
Mask Service Unit (MSU)
____ is a term used when suppy and attack engines switch responsibilities and positions.
Bumping occurs most often on a ____ street when the first two engines arrive in quick sequence before the ladder company.
In many departments the ___ engine backs down to the ladder company.
The ground ladder is usually the ___ foot roof ladder or the two-section 35 foot ladder, which is ___ feet bedded.
Leave at least ___ feet between the engine and the ladder so ground ladder access is not impeded.
If two ladders are on the response, let the ____ ladder take the front of the building while the second ladder accesses the roof from the adjacent side street, or vice-versa.
Dead-end streets generally fall into three categories:
1. Long dead-end (no hydrant IN block)
2. Short dead-end (no hydrant ON block)
3. Dead-end street (long or short with hydrants on the block)
If the building is three stories in height or less, only ____ ladders may be necessary to access the upper floors and the roof.
For dead-ends with no hydrants, the attack operation will most likely depend on the _____ and the _____.
-length of the street
-location of the fire building relative to the intersection
If the residual pressure drops by 5% or less after the first handline is supplied, ___ more lines of equal diameter can be supplied from that hydrant.
If the pressure drop is 10%, only ___ lines of the same diameter may be supplied.
If the pressure drop is 20%, only ___ line can be supplied.
Any drop greater than 20% should indicate that no more lines can be supplied by this hydrant.
The ability (or lack thereof) of a firefighter or officer to adapt to the situation is called _____.
One of the best improvisational tools there is in regard to forcible entry in a non-emergency situation is the ____
One of the best improvisational aids in salvage work is ____, ____, and ____/
plastic tie wraps
The most important factor regarding the tactical worksheet is that it must be kept ____.
Two forms that work well for tactical worksheets are the ____ and the _____.
-fill in the blank type
ICS form page 1:
A place where a sketch of the incident can be drawn
ICS form page 2:
A place to write a brief narative
ICS form page 3:
A generic command chart
ICS form page 4:
A resources summary sheet
The incident commander must establish a command organization that is directly proportional to the emergency at hand.
The best way to provide for the safety of operating personnel at the scene of a large emergency is to ____ the fireground.
The ideal span of control, most sources will tell you, is ____ subordinates to one supevisor.
When companies are operating in a safe area such as out of the collapse zone during a defensive operation, ____ may be increased.
span of control
The more danger in the particular operation, the ____ the span of control should be.
The ____ team should liason with both the safety officer and the IC.
Mayday: At least ____ additional alarms should be struck.
At the very least, RIC team personnel should be trained in the basics of firefighter assessment and rescue.
There are two general types of emergency transmissions on the fireground:
1. Top-down emergency transmissoin
2. Bottom-up emergency transmission
Mayday: The key to transmitting the bottom-up emergency transmission is to utilize an audible alarm such as the ___ unit.
This is the most common type of perimeter control used on the fireground:
Single tape at chest level: Unrestricted firefighter access
This is used when the hazard necessitates that only personnel essential to the operation enter the area:
Parallel double tape: Limited firefighter access
Perimeter Control: This type indicates an area where no personnel are permitted under any circumstance:
Double barrier tape run in an X or criss-crossed fashion
A ____ in the floor is usually a floor saddle that separates rooms.
When FF needs to clear hanging obstacles, the key here is to reduce your profile by turning your cylinder down toward the floor, preferably into a _____.
The "magic rope" was simply a ___ foot length of small diameter utility rope, stuffed in the turnout coat pocket.
If the aerial device cannot be raised above the wall, it must be kept away for a distance at least equal to the height of the wall above the device, plus ___ feet for every flor in the building.
When operating aerial devices, not only must the apparatus be positioned out of the collapse zones, but the aerial device itself must also be clear of the potential collapse area.
Master streams dump as much as ____ gallons per minute on the building.
____ will allow the nozzle to operate in the same manner as the firefighter on the tip of the aerial.
A supply line of ___ feet is best.
It is called the 75-80-85 rule of thumb:
75 degree angle for the ladder
80 psi nozzle pressure (solid bore)
85 feet of elevation
Remember that force is equal to ____ multiplied by _____.
_____ are high volume, high impact weapons against fire.
A ____ should be used to guide the ladder operator on the turntable.
Three levels of Vacant buildings:
Entry permitted (Level 1)
Enter with extreme caution (Level 2)
No entry (Level 3)
If there are multiple floors with holes, the ___ symbol may be used.
A safe and orderly _____ is the result of effective planning and cooperation among the participants.
____, ____, and ____ can sometime be described as the overflow drain of the soul.
Basements, attics, garages
_____ is the glue that holds the factors of the fireground coordination triangle together.
Old Law Construction:
-CELLAR accessible from interior
-Cellar ceiling EXPOSED
-Shaft windows located in APARTMENTS