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Flashcards in First partial Deck (96):
1

Some important changes from the Renaissance are:

The scientific revolution, the discovery of the new world (America)

2

What did Martin Luther write?

95 theses

3

During the 30 year war, who were the two groups fighting?

Protestants vs. Catholics (mainly France) vs. (Spain)

4

Why did England not participate in the 30 year war?

They were having their own civil war

5

What is the Treaty of Westphalia?

Treaty that concluded the 30 year war, saying each state can choose their religion, and they'll be tolerant.

6

What was the main problem during the English Civil War?

Monarchy and parliament were fighting.

7

Name of the English document in which it is said the parliament has to approve every King's decision

Magna Carta

8

Who said that the government should be able to take people's rights in exchange for peace, security, etc.?

Thomas Hobbes

9

Who said that the government should protect three main rights: life, liberty & property?

John Locke

10

A lot of exploration was done during which years?

1400's

11

Some products that were taken to Europe from America are?

Turkey, tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, cacao, beans, corn, potatoes, gold, silver, wood, furs, etc.

12

What is mercantilism?

Becoming wealthy by controlling colonies and having more power

13

Thomas Hobbes said that we need a strong government to control people, because...

People are selfish and evil

14

Locke said that if the government does not protect our rights we can...

Overthrow the government

15

Who said this?
"I don't agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it."

Voltaire

16

Who called for the separation of powers (executive, judicial & legislative)?

Montesquieu

17

Who wrote the social contract?

Rousseau

18

John Locke mentioned three natural rights:

Life, liberty & property

19

Voltaire said that we should have freedom of...

Thought & expression

20

What is absolutism?

Having complete power over a country and not accepting opinions from others

21

What did the 1651 Navigation Act consist of?

American colonies could only buy from and sell to England

22

The Americans have to pay for a certain war before their Independence, which one?

The 7-year war

23

The 7-year war was a fight between which two countries?

England and France

24

The 1765 Stamp Act consists of...?

"No taxation without representation"

25

In 1773, the British imposed a new tax, on which product?

Tea

26

Which protest was held against a certain tax in the U.S.?

Boston tea party

27

In 1774, a congress meets for the very first time in America. What was the name of the congress and where did they meet?

The Continental Congress met in Philadelphia

28

What's the name of a famous battle held in 1775?

Battle of Lexington

29

After the Battle of Lexington, the Continental Congress recognized what and whom?

They recognized the war and named George Washington as general

30

In July 1776, the 3rd Continental Congress declared what?

Independence

31

During the American independence, France helped the colonies in which aspects?

Gave many soldiers & money to get revenge on Britain

32

After the Yorktown Battle, which treaty was signed and what did it consist on?

The Treaty of Paris officially declared that Britain gave up, and America was now independent

33

After independence, the U.S. adopted which type of government?

Democracy

34

Who could vote within the united States' new democracy?

Men, white people & rich people

35

On July 4th, 1787, in the United States, a document was signed. Which was this?

The constitution

36

What did the American constitution specifically symbolized?

They had become a republic

37

What is the Bill of Rights?

Document that protected people from the government in the U.S.

38

Did African-American and slaves benefited from the independence?

No, they couldn't vote and slaves were, well, slaves

39

Who were governing France before the first revolution began?

Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette

40

Why was Louis XVI not liked?

He spent a fortune, was not in touch with the country, he was very young and made VERY BAD DECISIONS

41

Before the first revolution, France was bankrupt. Why?

Because of the 7-year war & the American Independence

42

How were the social classes organized before the French Revolution?

1st: Clergy
2nd: Nobles
3rd: -Bourgeoisie-Peasants-Workers

43

Mention the two main problems with economy in France at the time of the revolution:

Due to a very bad winter, there was LESS BREAD & VERY HIGH TAXES

44

During the revolution, the King wanted to charge taxes to which social group?

Nobles

45

In 1789, in France, a certain group was formed. What was it called?

National Assembly

46

What is the Tennis Court Oath?

A French protest in which people would stay in there (tennis court) until they had a constitution

47

What was Louis XVI's reaction to the Tennis Court Oath?

He sent the Swiss army to Versailles

48

During the revolution, the people in Paris believed they would be killed, therefore they took action and did what exactly?

Stormed into the Bastille to get weapons (July 14th, 1789)

49

The National Assembly wanted to protect people's rights, so they created what?

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

50

France's neighbor countries, Austria & Prussia, become worried during the revolution, because...

The monarchy might get hurt, and the revolution's ideals might reach their countries

51

Women got to Versailles from Paris in 1789, and...

Forced the king to go to Paris, which showed weakness and clarified that he had no longer control over France

52

To pay the enormous debt in France, the National Assembly did what?

Took the Church's land and sold it

53

After selling the Church's lands, which social group is against the National Assembly?

The peasants (huge Church followers)

54

Louis XVI tries to escape to Netherlands but...

he is caught, and sent back to Paris

55

By September 1791, in France, a Constitution is ready and this says:

The legislative power can declare war on the king

56

In 1792, which two countries invade France and with which reasons?

Austria & Prussia invade to:
stop all the change and restore the monarchy's power, protect the crown, and they threaten to destroy Paris if they hurt the king

57

After the threat that Austria & Prussia make on destroying Paris, what happens to Louis XVI?

He is sent to prison

58

The National Assembly transforms into what?

The Legislative Assembly, and then the National Convention

59

The National Convention declares war on Austria & Prussia. If they lose, the monarchy will be restored (a major don't) so...

They kill the king (Louis XVI) in January 1793

60

After ending the monarchy during the French Revolution, which countries join the war?

Britain, Sweden & Spain

61

During the revolution, the French government became aggressive and which movement began?

"The Terror" begins (1793-1795)

62

What did "The Terror" consist on?

Anyone who was against the government was killed

63

During "The Terror", a new group surged, this was:

The Jacobins

64

What is the goal of the Jacobins?

To form a republic of virtue

65

The Jacobins create the Committee of Public Safety, who is in front?

Robespierre

66

What does Robespierre do?

Kills many people, to "clean people from France who are against the Revolution"

67

What marks the end of "The Terror"?

Robespierre's death

68

In 1795, a new group is created in France. Which one, and which are its characteristics?

The Directory, formed by five men

69

Why does the French Directory disappear?

Because of corruption, in 1799

70

The new government after the Directory is a CONSUL, what are its characteristics?

Formed by three consuls

71

Who becomes the first consul of France?

Napoleon Bonaparte

72

Did women and slaves benefit from the French Revolution?

Yes, they were given some rights and freedom

73

Mention positive things that Napoleon did at first

He solved the economy, beat all nations (except Britain), and gave stability to France

74

At first, when Napoleon was a general, he was sent to Italy to fight whom, and what happened afterwards?

He was sent to fight Austria, and after that he created the Italian Republic

75

In order to try to fight the British, Napoleon went to Egypt and what happened?

He won in land and lost in sea against Nelson. This loss is known as the "Battle of the Nile"

76

In 1799, Napoleon became the first consul and what happens then?

He declared war on Austria, Russia & Britain

77

In 1800, a plebiscite elected Napoleon as what?

Consul for life

78

In 1804, Napoleon becomes -------- of France.

Emperor

79

Napoleon makes Pope Pius VII sign what?

Concordant, in which he recognizes importance of the Church, but this is controlled by the state inside France

80

What did Napoleon do in terms of education?

He creates the lycée, and public education (for men only)

81

What is a meritocracy?

a system in which such people are rewarded and advanced based on their progress and abilities

82

Napoleon betters taxes and creates what based on Britain?

Bank of France

83

Napoleon writes down a series of laws, the Napoleonic Code, and what changes?

Slavery comes back, controls the press, and is totally against women

84

Napoleon creates the CONTINENTAL SYSTEM. What for?

So nobody can trade with England

85

What happens in the Battle of Trafalgar?

Spain and France lose their navy against England

86

Napoleon knew it would've been ideal to begin a revolution in England, but this was nearly impossible why?

The parliamentary monarchy (government) was very stable, they had the best navy, they had the best economy due to the Industrial Revolution and the Bank of England

87

Relate Napoleon to the Mexican Independece

José Bonaparte - Spain - Fernando VII
(Personal answer)

88

Which countries form the Congress of Vienna?

Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain & France

89

What were the Congress of Vienna's goals?

Peace, restore the old monarchies, decide what to keep and what not to keep from the French Revolution, and have a balance so no one becomes too powerful-like Napoleon

90

Napoleon was defeated in a final battle, which one?

Battle of Waterloo

91

What does Austria achieve after defeating Napoleon?

Control of the German kingdom

92

What does Prussia achieve after defeating Napoleon?

Territory (Poland)

93

What does Russia achieve after defeating Napoleon?

Poland & an alliance

94

What does Britain achieve after defeating Napoleon?

They expand freely, and create tension in order to have a strong France

95

What does France achieve after defeating Napoleon?

"Natural borders"

96

After the Congress of Vienna is settled, what is achieved in all of Europe?

40 years of peace!