Flashcards in First partial Deck (96):
Some important changes from the Renaissance are:
The scientific revolution, the discovery of the new world (America)
What did Martin Luther write?
During the 30 year war, who were the two groups fighting?
Protestants vs. Catholics (mainly France) vs. (Spain)
Why did England not participate in the 30 year war?
They were having their own civil war
What is the Treaty of Westphalia?
Treaty that concluded the 30 year war, saying each state can choose their religion, and they'll be tolerant.
What was the main problem during the English Civil War?
Monarchy and parliament were fighting.
Name of the English document in which it is said the parliament has to approve every King's decision
Who said that the government should be able to take people's rights in exchange for peace, security, etc.?
Who said that the government should protect three main rights: life, liberty & property?
A lot of exploration was done during which years?
Some products that were taken to Europe from America are?
Turkey, tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, cacao, beans, corn, potatoes, gold, silver, wood, furs, etc.
What is mercantilism?
Becoming wealthy by controlling colonies and having more power
Thomas Hobbes said that we need a strong government to control people, because...
People are selfish and evil
Locke said that if the government does not protect our rights we can...
Overthrow the government
Who said this?
"I don't agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it."
Who called for the separation of powers (executive, judicial & legislative)?
Who wrote the social contract?
John Locke mentioned three natural rights:
Life, liberty & property
Voltaire said that we should have freedom of...
Thought & expression
What is absolutism?
Having complete power over a country and not accepting opinions from others
What did the 1651 Navigation Act consist of?
American colonies could only buy from and sell to England
The Americans have to pay for a certain war before their Independence, which one?
The 7-year war
The 7-year war was a fight between which two countries?
England and France
The 1765 Stamp Act consists of...?
"No taxation without representation"
In 1773, the British imposed a new tax, on which product?
Which protest was held against a certain tax in the U.S.?
Boston tea party
In 1774, a congress meets for the very first time in America. What was the name of the congress and where did they meet?
The Continental Congress met in Philadelphia
What's the name of a famous battle held in 1775?
Battle of Lexington
After the Battle of Lexington, the Continental Congress recognized what and whom?
They recognized the war and named George Washington as general
In July 1776, the 3rd Continental Congress declared what?
During the American independence, France helped the colonies in which aspects?
Gave many soldiers & money to get revenge on Britain
After the Yorktown Battle, which treaty was signed and what did it consist on?
The Treaty of Paris officially declared that Britain gave up, and America was now independent
After independence, the U.S. adopted which type of government?
Who could vote within the united States' new democracy?
Men, white people & rich people
On July 4th, 1787, in the United States, a document was signed. Which was this?
What did the American constitution specifically symbolized?
They had become a republic
What is the Bill of Rights?
Document that protected people from the government in the U.S.
Did African-American and slaves benefited from the independence?
No, they couldn't vote and slaves were, well, slaves
Who were governing France before the first revolution began?
Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
Why was Louis XVI not liked?
He spent a fortune, was not in touch with the country, he was very young and made VERY BAD DECISIONS
Before the first revolution, France was bankrupt. Why?
Because of the 7-year war & the American Independence
How were the social classes organized before the French Revolution?
Mention the two main problems with economy in France at the time of the revolution:
Due to a very bad winter, there was LESS BREAD & VERY HIGH TAXES
During the revolution, the King wanted to charge taxes to which social group?
In 1789, in France, a certain group was formed. What was it called?
What is the Tennis Court Oath?
A French protest in which people would stay in there (tennis court) until they had a constitution
What was Louis XVI's reaction to the Tennis Court Oath?
He sent the Swiss army to Versailles
During the revolution, the people in Paris believed they would be killed, therefore they took action and did what exactly?
Stormed into the Bastille to get weapons (July 14th, 1789)
The National Assembly wanted to protect people's rights, so they created what?
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
France's neighbor countries, Austria & Prussia, become worried during the revolution, because...
The monarchy might get hurt, and the revolution's ideals might reach their countries
Women got to Versailles from Paris in 1789, and...
Forced the king to go to Paris, which showed weakness and clarified that he had no longer control over France
To pay the enormous debt in France, the National Assembly did what?
Took the Church's land and sold it
After selling the Church's lands, which social group is against the National Assembly?
The peasants (huge Church followers)
Louis XVI tries to escape to Netherlands but...
he is caught, and sent back to Paris
By September 1791, in France, a Constitution is ready and this says:
The legislative power can declare war on the king
In 1792, which two countries invade France and with which reasons?
Austria & Prussia invade to:
stop all the change and restore the monarchy's power, protect the crown, and they threaten to destroy Paris if they hurt the king
After the threat that Austria & Prussia make on destroying Paris, what happens to Louis XVI?
He is sent to prison
The National Assembly transforms into what?
The Legislative Assembly, and then the National Convention
The National Convention declares war on Austria & Prussia. If they lose, the monarchy will be restored (a major don't) so...
They kill the king (Louis XVI) in January 1793
After ending the monarchy during the French Revolution, which countries join the war?
Britain, Sweden & Spain
During the revolution, the French government became aggressive and which movement began?
"The Terror" begins (1793-1795)
What did "The Terror" consist on?
Anyone who was against the government was killed
During "The Terror", a new group surged, this was:
What is the goal of the Jacobins?
To form a republic of virtue
The Jacobins create the Committee of Public Safety, who is in front?
What does Robespierre do?
Kills many people, to "clean people from France who are against the Revolution"
What marks the end of "The Terror"?
In 1795, a new group is created in France. Which one, and which are its characteristics?
The Directory, formed by five men
Why does the French Directory disappear?
Because of corruption, in 1799
The new government after the Directory is a CONSUL, what are its characteristics?
Formed by three consuls
Who becomes the first consul of France?
Did women and slaves benefit from the French Revolution?
Yes, they were given some rights and freedom
Mention positive things that Napoleon did at first
He solved the economy, beat all nations (except Britain), and gave stability to France
At first, when Napoleon was a general, he was sent to Italy to fight whom, and what happened afterwards?
He was sent to fight Austria, and after that he created the Italian Republic
In order to try to fight the British, Napoleon went to Egypt and what happened?
He won in land and lost in sea against Nelson. This loss is known as the "Battle of the Nile"
In 1799, Napoleon became the first consul and what happens then?
He declared war on Austria, Russia & Britain
In 1800, a plebiscite elected Napoleon as what?
Consul for life
In 1804, Napoleon becomes -------- of France.
Napoleon makes Pope Pius VII sign what?
Concordant, in which he recognizes importance of the Church, but this is controlled by the state inside France
What did Napoleon do in terms of education?
He creates the lycée, and public education (for men only)
What is a meritocracy?
a system in which such people are rewarded and advanced based on their progress and abilities
Napoleon betters taxes and creates what based on Britain?
Bank of France
Napoleon writes down a series of laws, the Napoleonic Code, and what changes?
Slavery comes back, controls the press, and is totally against women
Napoleon creates the CONTINENTAL SYSTEM. What for?
So nobody can trade with England
What happens in the Battle of Trafalgar?
Spain and France lose their navy against England
Napoleon knew it would've been ideal to begin a revolution in England, but this was nearly impossible why?
The parliamentary monarchy (government) was very stable, they had the best navy, they had the best economy due to the Industrial Revolution and the Bank of England
Relate Napoleon to the Mexican Independece
José Bonaparte - Spain - Fernando VII
Which countries form the Congress of Vienna?
Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain & France
What were the Congress of Vienna's goals?
Peace, restore the old monarchies, decide what to keep and what not to keep from the French Revolution, and have a balance so no one becomes too powerful-like Napoleon
Napoleon was defeated in a final battle, which one?
Battle of Waterloo
What does Austria achieve after defeating Napoleon?
Control of the German kingdom
What does Prussia achieve after defeating Napoleon?
What does Russia achieve after defeating Napoleon?
Poland & an alliance
What does Britain achieve after defeating Napoleon?
They expand freely, and create tension in order to have a strong France
What does France achieve after defeating Napoleon?