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Flashcards in Third partial Deck (56):
1

Where did the Industrial Revolution bloom?

Britain

2

Why did the Industrial Revolution first happen in England?

Political, economical and technological stability

3

What were the two main industries affected by the Industrial Revolution?

Textiles & transport

4

What were some of the consequences of the Industrial Revolution?

-Growth of cities
-Economical and technological boom

5

What were some of the problems of city growth?

-Cities weren't big enough
-Bad living conditions
-Diseases
-Short life span

6

Disadvantages and problems during the Industrial Revolution:

-Long work schedules
-Children were used
-Mines were dangerous to work in

7

What were the main causes of the revolutions in 1848?

-Hunger
-Urbanization
-Social classes
-Industrialization

8

Which event in 1845 was an important influence in the 1848 revolutions?

The economical crisis of 1845, in which many crops failed, food prices increased, and businessmen went bankrupt

9

What was authoritarianism?

The conservative regimes that favored upper classes

10

What was liberalism?

The middle classes were excluded from the government; therefore, they wanted more representation and fairness inside the government

11

What is socialism?

Wanting a better-organized society, as well as resources distributed more equally

12

Who is the father of socialism?

Karl Marx

13

What caused the 1848 revolution in France?

-King Louis-Philippe did not change laws
-Food and economical crisis
-Liberals wanted change

14

The liberals protested in Paris in 1848, which led to what?

The King accepted all of their demands, which was a mistake, because the liberals asked for more

15

After the Revolution, what became of France?

A republic

16

After the revolution in France, another constitution was made. After it, who was elected president?

Napoleon III, who later on, in 1852, declares himself emperor

17

What is the main idea of Laissez-Faire?

Pro-trade: not stopping the flow of goods

18

What were Adam Smith's main ideas?

-Self-interest
-Competition
-Markets

19

What are the main ideas of capitalism?

Factors of production are owned by individuals

20

What are the advantages of capitalism?

-It rewards entrepeneurs, innovation and hard work
-More people have a say in government
-More social mobility

21

What are the disadvantages of capitalism?

-Poor people are required
-Bigger population
-People who fail are rooted out
-Leads to exploitation

22

What is the main idea of utilitarianism?

We should judge people and ideas according to how useful they are to society, and government should take decisions choosing whatever action maximizes the welfare of society

23

What is the goal of socialism?

Social justice

24

What is the main idea of socialism?

The factors of production should be owned by everyone, for everyone

25

What is communism?

When the government controls resources and shares them equally

26

What is colonialism?

One country takes control over another country

27

What is imperialism?

A country's control over another nation's politics and economics

28

What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?

To divide Africa among European countries

29

Why was the Ottoman Empire, geopolitically speaking, so powerful?

It controlled strategic routes, wanted my most European countries

30

Who was the Ottoman Empire's main rival?

Russia

31

What were the causes for the Crimea War?

-Russia wanted to access the Mediterranean
-Russia was angry because France had the right to protect Christians in the Holy Land
-England threatened Russia, afraid of its power and another war

32

What happened in the Crimea War?

Russia attacked the Ottoman Empire; France, England & the Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia

33

What was "the great game"?

The battle between Russia and Britain for India

34

To get to India, Russia would have to go through Afghanistan. What did Britain do about it?

Controlled Afghanistan's security

35

Why did Muhammad Ali break away from the Ottomans?

To modernize Egypt

36

What was the East India Company?

Trading company that ruled India on behalf of Britain until the Indian Mutiny

37

What did the East India Company do in order to rule over big empires?

Ally with several tribes

38

What were the consequences of the First Indian Mutiny?

-The Hindus wouldn't trust Muslims.
-Racism emerged
-British wouldn't trust Indians

39

What was a characteristic of Japan?

It was isolated

40

What was the Meiji Restoration?

A plan to modernize Japan and compete with the west

41

What was the main conflict during the Russo-Japanese War?

Japan ruled over Korea, who had control over Manchuria. Manchuria was wanted by Russia

42

During Imperialism, which country joined Japan?

Korea

43

What is nationalism?

An idea based on cultural similarities, common history, same religious views, similar languages, and living in the same area

44

Which empires had problems with nationalism?

Russia, Ottomans & Austria

45

Which was the most important kingdom in Italy, and why?

Piedmont-Sardinia, because it was rich, and it adopted liberal reforms and laws

46

Which country joined the Piedmontese to fight the Austrians?

France

47

After winning the war against Austria, Italy came together, except for which part?

Venetia

48

Which was Italy's previous capital? (Before Rome)

Turin

49

What was the German Confederation?

Various German states that were loosely united

50

Who dominated Germany back in the day?

Austria

51

Who came up with the idea of Realpolitik?

Bismark

52

What was the goal of Realpolitik?

Power, rather tan ideologies

53

Prussia joined Austria to fight which country for territory?

Denmark

54

Why did Prussia fight the Austrians in a seven-week war?

Prussia wanted more control, and also, wanted Venetia

55

What was the goal of the Franco-Prussian war?

For Prussia to get support from the Southern Catholic German states

56

How did the Franco-Prussian war end?

German states joined Prussia, and Wilhelm became emperor