Flashcards in Third partial Deck (56):
Where did the Industrial Revolution bloom?
Why did the Industrial Revolution first happen in England?
Political, economical and technological stability
What were the two main industries affected by the Industrial Revolution?
Textiles & transport
What were some of the consequences of the Industrial Revolution?
-Growth of cities
-Economical and technological boom
What were some of the problems of city growth?
-Cities weren't big enough
-Bad living conditions
-Short life span
Disadvantages and problems during the Industrial Revolution:
-Long work schedules
-Children were used
-Mines were dangerous to work in
What were the main causes of the revolutions in 1848?
Which event in 1845 was an important influence in the 1848 revolutions?
The economical crisis of 1845, in which many crops failed, food prices increased, and businessmen went bankrupt
What was authoritarianism?
The conservative regimes that favored upper classes
What was liberalism?
The middle classes were excluded from the government; therefore, they wanted more representation and fairness inside the government
What is socialism?
Wanting a better-organized society, as well as resources distributed more equally
Who is the father of socialism?
What caused the 1848 revolution in France?
-King Louis-Philippe did not change laws
-Food and economical crisis
-Liberals wanted change
The liberals protested in Paris in 1848, which led to what?
The King accepted all of their demands, which was a mistake, because the liberals asked for more
After the Revolution, what became of France?
After the revolution in France, another constitution was made. After it, who was elected president?
Napoleon III, who later on, in 1852, declares himself emperor
What is the main idea of Laissez-Faire?
Pro-trade: not stopping the flow of goods
What were Adam Smith's main ideas?
What are the main ideas of capitalism?
Factors of production are owned by individuals
What are the advantages of capitalism?
-It rewards entrepeneurs, innovation and hard work
-More people have a say in government
-More social mobility
What are the disadvantages of capitalism?
-Poor people are required
-People who fail are rooted out
-Leads to exploitation
What is the main idea of utilitarianism?
We should judge people and ideas according to how useful they are to society, and government should take decisions choosing whatever action maximizes the welfare of society
What is the goal of socialism?
What is the main idea of socialism?
The factors of production should be owned by everyone, for everyone
What is communism?
When the government controls resources and shares them equally
What is colonialism?
One country takes control over another country
What is imperialism?
A country's control over another nation's politics and economics
What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?
To divide Africa among European countries
Why was the Ottoman Empire, geopolitically speaking, so powerful?
It controlled strategic routes, wanted my most European countries
Who was the Ottoman Empire's main rival?
What were the causes for the Crimea War?
-Russia wanted to access the Mediterranean
-Russia was angry because France had the right to protect Christians in the Holy Land
-England threatened Russia, afraid of its power and another war
What happened in the Crimea War?
Russia attacked the Ottoman Empire; France, England & the Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia
What was "the great game"?
The battle between Russia and Britain for India
To get to India, Russia would have to go through Afghanistan. What did Britain do about it?
Controlled Afghanistan's security
Why did Muhammad Ali break away from the Ottomans?
To modernize Egypt
What was the East India Company?
Trading company that ruled India on behalf of Britain until the Indian Mutiny
What did the East India Company do in order to rule over big empires?
Ally with several tribes
What were the consequences of the First Indian Mutiny?
-The Hindus wouldn't trust Muslims.
-British wouldn't trust Indians
What was a characteristic of Japan?
It was isolated
What was the Meiji Restoration?
A plan to modernize Japan and compete with the west
What was the main conflict during the Russo-Japanese War?
Japan ruled over Korea, who had control over Manchuria. Manchuria was wanted by Russia
During Imperialism, which country joined Japan?
What is nationalism?
An idea based on cultural similarities, common history, same religious views, similar languages, and living in the same area
Which empires had problems with nationalism?
Russia, Ottomans & Austria
Which was the most important kingdom in Italy, and why?
Piedmont-Sardinia, because it was rich, and it adopted liberal reforms and laws
Which country joined the Piedmontese to fight the Austrians?
After winning the war against Austria, Italy came together, except for which part?
Which was Italy's previous capital? (Before Rome)
What was the German Confederation?
Various German states that were loosely united
Who dominated Germany back in the day?
Who came up with the idea of Realpolitik?
What was the goal of Realpolitik?
Power, rather tan ideologies
Prussia joined Austria to fight which country for territory?
Why did Prussia fight the Austrians in a seven-week war?
Prussia wanted more control, and also, wanted Venetia
What was the goal of the Franco-Prussian war?
For Prussia to get support from the Southern Catholic German states