Flexural and Angular Deformities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Flexural and Angular Deformities Deck (36)
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1

What is an angular deformity?

Postural deformities in the frontal plane of the limbs

2

What are causes of congenital deformities?

Uterine malposition
Genetics
Teratogenic agents
Mare nutrition
Viral/bacterial infection in mare
Mare goiter
Sudan grass ingestion

3

What are the attachments of the inferior check ligaments?

From deep digital flexor tendon to the proximal end of metacarpal

4

What are conservative methods for treating a carpal flexural deformity?

Exercise — stretching of tendons
Shoeing — toe extensions (pushes the fetlock back)
Splints
Oxytetracycline —> binds Ca leading to muscle relaxation
Cast

5

What is another name for contracted tendons causing deformity at the distal interphalangeal joint?

Club-foot

6

Treatment for club foot?

Controlled exercise
Reduce food intake
Trim heel toe extension

Inferior check ligament desmotomy

7

How can you analyze the pivot point ?

Radiograph limb

Cellulose acetate overlay —> trace bone outlines

Bisect the long bone axis
OR
Place lines through joint space

Measure angle

8

What do you call a lateral deviation of the limbs?

Valgus

9

Clinical signs of club-foot?

“Boxy” appearance
Growth at hells
Break in hoof pastern angle
Weight bearing on toe

10

Surgical treatment of a extensor tendon rupture is ______________ and the treatment for club foot is __________

Superior tendon desmotomy; inferior check tendon desmotomy.

11

What do you call a medial deviation of the limbs

Varus

12

How can you diagnose angular limb deformities?

Observation
Limb manipulation
Radiographs

13

How does a flexor tendon rupture appear and what might be another ddx for this?

Flexion at hock —dropped forward

Radial nerve paralysis —> knuckling

14

What surgical method inhibits growth at the physis?

Transphyseal bridging
—screws and cerclage wire
—staples

15

What are causes of articular deviation ?

Periarticular laxity
Incomplete ossification of carpal bones
Hypothyroidism
Limb confirmation
—overloading
—Physeal (trauma/infection)
Twins

16

At what joints are flexural deformities usually located?

Fetlock and carpus

Coffin joint is rare

17

What are clinical signs of digital hyperextending?

Toe elevated from the ground
Skinking fetlock

18

What are the attachments of the superior check ligament?

Attaches from superficial digital flexor to the mid radius

19

What is the surgical procedure for correction of bilateral contracted tendons?

Digital flexor tenotomy

20

What tendons are involved in flexural deformities?

SDF
DDF
Suspensory lig
Joint capsule

21

What are the 3 possible surgical treatments for angular limb deformities?

Hemicircumferential periostal transection and elevation (periosteal stripping)

Growth retardation (temporary transphyseal bridging)
—screws/wires/staples

Corrective osteotomy

22

What surgical methods can be used to treat extensor tendon rupture ?

Superior check ligament desmotomy
—> removes stress from SDFT to the muscular portion

23

What surgical method accelerates growth at the physis?

Hemicircumferential periostal transection and elevation (periosteal stripping)

24

What joints can be affected by angular limb deformities?

Carpus
Tarsus
Metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal

25

What is the prognosis for a digital flexor tenotomy?

Usually good
Full recovery in 2weeks

26

What are conservative treatments for angular limb deformities?

Stall rest
Hoof trimming
External support
—splint
—cast

27

What is a flexural deformity?

Hyperflexion of a limb and results from disparity in length of the musculotendinous unit relative to bone length

28

How does prolonged external coaptation lead to tendon laxity?

Immobilization

Weakening of soft tissue supporting structures —> articular and tendon laxity
(Rapid in foals)

29

What can cause an aquired flexor tendon laxity?

OCD
Arthritis (septic)
Wounds
Trauma
—> all causing pain

Prolonged external coaptation

30

What type of shoe could you use for conservative management of digital hyperextension?

Shoe with extended heel —-> support the back