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Flashcards in Diagnosing Lamness Deck (44)
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1

When performing a pre-purchase lameness evaluation, what party are you working for?

Buyer

2

What are the 7 classic steps of a lamenss exam?

History
PE
Palpation
Observation a exercise
Flexion tests
Diagnostic nerve blocks
Diagnostic imaging

3

What are important questions to ask in a history for a lameness exam?

Signalment ?
Work?
Shoeing history?
Previous lameness?
Duration of lameness? (Last normal?)
What as been done since lameness noted (Rest? Work?)
Possible cause?
Does horse warm into or out the the lameness?
Stumbling ?
Treatments?

4

When doing a PE, you are unsure if the limb appears abnormal. How can you evaluate visual abnormalities?

Compare to contralateral limb

Conformation
Swelling
Symmetry

5

T/F: when evaluating lameness, you want to palpate the limb both weight bearing, and non-weight bearing

True

6

What is the gait lameness is graded from?

Trot

7

What is the best surface for evaluation of lameness?

Firm and event

For more subtle lameness, may require different surfaces, hills/incline

8

T/F: in a lameness exam, the lameness appears to be in the forelimbs. The horse has a head drop when the right limb in down. This means the lameness is in the right limb?

False

“Down sound”

If head goes down on the right limb, then the right limb is sound. The left limb would be lame

Head rises to decrease weight on lame limb

9

T/F: in hindlimb lameness the the head bob is down on the sound limb

False

Head goes down on the LAME limb

10

When using hoof testers, they are placed on all the following except?

Wall
Heels
Coronary band
Frog
Sole

Coronary band

11

A horse presents to you with a grade 3/5 RF lameness, which of the following would be expected as you watch the horse in motion?

A. Head nod down when RF is in contact with the ground

B. Head nod down when the LF is in contact with he ground

B. Head not down when LF is in contact with the ground

“Down sound”

12

Grade this lameness..

Difficult to observe
Inconsistent at any gait

Grade 1

13

Grade this lameness..

Difficult to observe in a straight line but consistently apparent under certain circumstances (eg circling, hard surface, or incline)

Grade 2

14

Grade the lameness..

Consistently observable at a trot under all circumstances

Grade 3

15

Grade the lameness...

Obvious lameness with marked head nod, hitching, and shortened stride

Grade 4

16

Grade this lameness..

Minimal weight bearing/non-weight bearing and inability to move

Grade 5

17

What are 5 pathogomonic lamenesses that can be diagnosed at the walk?

Peroneus tertius rupture
Upward fixation of the patella (locking patella)
Stringhalt
Fibrotic myopathy
Sweeney

18

What is causing this lameness..

Tarsus falls forward in hyperextention.
Limb lags behind in forward stride

Peroneus tertius rupture

When limb is pulled in to hyperextention, normall the hock would be held in flexion

With ruputre, limb is fully extended

19

What is causing this lameness.. ?

Hindlimb is held in extension, stifle and digits
Horse lags hindlimb behind
On flexion, abrupt sticky movement .

Upward fixation of the patella

For stay apparatus, patella hooks over the medial trochlear ridge, holding the stifle in extension

And because of reciprocal apparatus the hock is held in extension

20

What is this lameness?

Shortened cranial stride
Unsymmetrical appearance of of the muscles of hindlimb.

Fibrotic myopathy

21

What is the lameness..

Exaggerated flexion of the hind limb, but fluid in motion

Springhalt

(Can be confused with uppward fixation of the patella, but this is more choppy)

22

What is the lameness..

Shortened cranial stride in the forelimb. Muscle atrophy over the scapula

Sweeney — suprascapular nerve injury

23

How is a flexion test preformed?

Forelimb:
Distal: Hold distal limb in flexion for 30sec
Carpal: hold proximal limb in flexion for 60sec
Trot off in a straight line immediately after flexion

Hindlimb:
Distal: same as forelimb
Proximal limb: spavin test (90sec), not hock specific

Positive test = exacerbated lameness

24

What is the criteria for local anesthesia for lameness localization?

Is the horse lame enough to tell the difference

Too lame —> blocking can lead to catastrophic failure

Will the horse stand for a block?

25

What are the methods of local anesthesia?

Perineural (nerve block)

Regional

Direct infiltration of site

IA

26

What agents are used in local anesthesia?

Duration 30mins -2hrs :
2% lidocaine
2% mepivacaine (carbocations)

Duration 5-6hrs:
0.5% bupivacaine
(Not for diagnostics)

27

T/F: perineural anesthesia can be tested by testing sensation of the skin with a dull instrument, presence of sensation means failure of the nerve block

False

- first sensation lost, first one back

28

What are the specific nerve blocks form distal to proximal?

Palmar digital (PD)

Basi-seasamoid /abaxial seasmoid

Low and high 4 point block
— block lat/med palmar and palmar metacarpal nerves

29

Where do you place your needle for and palmar digital nerve block?

Groove between flexors and ergot (med and lateral)

1.5ml per site, should see effect in 5 ins

30

You just did a palmar nerve block.. what structures are anesthetized?

Sole
Navicular apparatus
Soft tissue of heel
Coffin joint
Digital portion of DDFT