Castration/Epididymectomy/Cryto Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Castration/Epididymectomy/Cryto Deck (43)
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1

What is the indication for castration in horses?

Behavior change (1-1 1/2 years)

2

What are indications for castration of farm animals

Increased growth rate

Better meat flavor (boars)

3

When do we want to castrate farm animals

10-14days

Less complications
Less pain
No meat taint

4

What are complications fo emasculation with the Brudizzo emasculator?

Scrotal sloughing
Slips
Clamping of penis

5

What type of emasculator has a clamp with a second handle for cutting ?

Reimer emasculator

6

For castration, how do you make your incision into the scrotum?

Cut the distal 1/3rd of scrotum (should be done in less than 3 cuts)

7

Doing a closed castration, prior to ligation the spermatic cord, what do you do to visualize the cord and this will also allow for more secure ligatures?

Use gauze to strip connective tissue toward the inguinal ring

8

After lighting the spermatic cord in closed castration, you place the emasculator ________cm from the ligature and clamp it for ____mins

1cm
5mins

Remember to always place “nut to nut”

9

T/F: When doing an open castration you incise through both the parietal and vaginal tunic

True

10

What structures can you visualize in the spermatic cord when doing an open castrations?

Plexus pampiniformis with testicular artery
Ductus deferens
Cremaster muscle

11

T/F: you should always do a double ligation for castrations to ensure ligature security

False

Double ligation increase risk of infection

12

What is the purpose of vasectomy/epididymectomy?

Allows detection of females in estrus to be bred by males or greater genetic material

Makes the males infertile and prevents ventricle diseases

13

What is a vasectomy?

Removal of ductus deferens for male infertility

14

How do you preform a vasectomy?

Local line block with lidocaine

Incision made on neck of scrotum lateral to median raphe

Isolation of vas deferens and spermatic vessels
Blunt dissect spermatic chord and incise tunic

Direct vas deferens from veins and arteries

Ligate vas deferens at a distal and proximal location and remove tissue

Always submit tissue for histopath to confirm correct removal

15

What is an epididymectomy?

Removal of the tail of the epididymis

16

What is the procedure of an epididymectomy?

Incision over the epididymis into the parietal tunic
Vaginal tunic left intact

Blunt dissect testicular liagment

Ligation of the ductus deferens and body of the epididymis

Cut and check for hemorrhage

17

How is a penis/prepuce deviation done?

Incision into skin around preputial orfice and then down midline to the base of the penis.

A skin incision is make laterally and sponge forceps are used to make a sub cuteanous tunnel

A sterile sleeve is placed through the new opening and SQ tunnel ad the penis is directed through this and pulled through the new opening

Prepuce is sutured into the new location and the ventral midline Incision in closed

18

What procedure can be done to help prevent urolithiasis in sheep?

Removal of the urethral process

OR

Urethrostomy

19

What structures make up the inguinal canal?

Internal ring : vaginal ring (rectus sheath, border of internal abdominal oblique, and inguinal ligament)

External : slit in external abdominal oblique M

20

At birth the testis of a foal are located ?

In inguinal canal

Descend into scrotum at 1-2weeks

21

What muscle is responsible for pulling the retroperitoneally located testes into the scrotum?

Gubernaculum m

22

What do you call an anomaly of testicular position?

Cryptorchidism

23

What are the types of cryptorchidism?

Inguinal
Abdominal
Incomplete abdominal (partially in inguinal ring)

24

T/F: right sided cryptorchidism is more common than left sided

False

Left>right

25

What are etiologies of cryptorchidism?

Improper fxn of gubernaculum

Inguinal ring too small

Hormone imbalance (estrogen shortage)
Hereditary

26

What clinical signs can indicate cryptorchidism? And how can you diagnose?

Stallion like behaviour

Palpation (external —rectal)

Ultrasound (external —rectal)

Laparoscopic

Hormonal assay

27

How is a hormonal assay done to assess for cryptorchidism?

Collect blood (base line testosterone )

Inject 10,000 units of hCG (increases synthesis of testosterone)

Collect 2 hours and then 1-2days later

Gelding < 40pg/mL
Cryto >100pg/mL

28

Treatment for cryptorchidism?

May take up to 1 yr for testis to descend (w/o treatment)

1000IU hCG per 100 Pd 2x weed for 4 weeks
Surgery (orchiopexy)
—> standing (laparoscopic)
—> GA dorsal recumbency (most common)

29

What approaches can you use when doing a crytorchidectomy under GA?

Inguinal approach

Para-inguinal

Suprapubic paramedian

Flank (lat recumbency)

30

When doing a cryptorcidectomy, which testicle should you remove first?

Always remove the retained testicle first

If you cannot find the retained testicle abort procedure and leave the descended testicle in place. Then refer