Fluids/Lytes Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Fluids/Lytes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluids/Lytes Deck (16):
1

What is sodium exchanged for in the distal tubules?

Potassium

2

What causes release of ADH?

Posterior pituitary in hypovolemic state

3

Which is used to resuscitate: crystalloids or colloids?

Crystalloids (salt and sugar)

4

Name examples of colloids

Blood, albumin, dextran

5

What organ makes albumin?

Liver

6

What pH is considered acidosis?

Less than 7.2

7

List for things that can occur in acidosis?

Decreased response to catecholamines, cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, increased potassium serum level

8

Why do hepatitis C patients have ascites?

The liver makes albumin, so lack of liver function causes reduced oncotic pressure leading to seepage of fluid out of vessels

9

What causes release of aldosterone?

Hypovolemia

10

Describe what can happen as a result of hyponatremia

Seizure, coma, encephalopathy, cramping, twitches, fasciculations

11

Describe what can happen as a result of hyperkalemia

Peaked T waves and prolonged PR, cramping, aches, asystole (lethal injection)

12

Which two drugs lower serum potassium?

Bicarb and insulin

13

List causes of hyperkalemia

Renal dysfunction, hypoaldosteronism, drugs, excessive intake, cell death (rhabdo, tumor lysis, burns, hemolysis)

14

List 4 treatments for hyperkalemia in order of descending strength

CACl2 10%, sodium bicarbonate, D50 and insulin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)

15

What is the fastest IV potassium should be run and why?

10 mEq per hour (any faster can cause asystole)

16

What is unique about the treatment of CaCl2 10% for hyperkalemic emergencies?

It antagonizes potassium at the myocardium to protect the heart, but won't affect serum potassium