Flashcards in Fluids/Lytes Deck (16):
What is sodium exchanged for in the distal tubules?
What causes release of ADH?
Posterior pituitary in hypovolemic state
Which is used to resuscitate: crystalloids or colloids?
Crystalloids (salt and sugar)
Name examples of colloids
Blood, albumin, dextran
What organ makes albumin?
What pH is considered acidosis?
Less than 7.2
List for things that can occur in acidosis?
Decreased response to catecholamines, cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, increased potassium serum level
Why do hepatitis C patients have ascites?
The liver makes albumin, so lack of liver function causes reduced oncotic pressure leading to seepage of fluid out of vessels
What causes release of aldosterone?
Describe what can happen as a result of hyponatremia
Seizure, coma, encephalopathy, cramping, twitches, fasciculations
Describe what can happen as a result of hyperkalemia
Peaked T waves and prolonged PR, cramping, aches, asystole (lethal injection)
Which two drugs lower serum potassium?
Bicarb and insulin
List causes of hyperkalemia
Renal dysfunction, hypoaldosteronism, drugs, excessive intake, cell death (rhabdo, tumor lysis, burns, hemolysis)
List 4 treatments for hyperkalemia in order of descending strength
CACl2 10%, sodium bicarbonate, D50 and insulin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)
What is the fastest IV potassium should be run and why?
10 mEq per hour (any faster can cause asystole)