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Flashcards in Intro Material Deck (95):
1

Define pharmacy

The science of proper preparation, dispensing, and utilization of drugs

2

What should you think of when you hear pharmacokinetics?

ADME: absorption distribution metabolism and excretion

3

Describe dilution and succussion

Watered down, shaken drug given under belief that 'like cures like'

4

Why has complementary and alternative medicine gained popularity in recent years?

Patients like control/autonomy, natural products

5

What is required of generic medications?

They must contain 80% of bioequivalency of brand name product

6

What is an orphan drug?

A drug that treats rare orbs cure diseases, therefore not mass produced

7

What is the strongest warning level issued by FDA?

Blackbox warning

8

What is the difference between an anaphylactoid and an anaphylactic drug reaction?

Anaphylactoid – no antibodies involved, can cause reaction on first exposure
Anaphylactic – antibodies involved, appears with second exposure

9

Define pharmacology

The science of drug action

10

What is a cross sensitivity?

Reactions to two different drugs that usually occur concurrently (for example penicillin and cephalosporins)

11

What is Stevens-Johnson syndrome?

A severe progression of skin rash to skin sloughing involving mucous membranes and requiring IV steroids

12

Describe the new FDA pharmaceutical classification requirements

Must provide info about drug effects in pregnancy, lactation, and females and males with reproductive potential

13

What is the difference between ergogenics and doping?

Ergogenic (noun): a performance enhancing agent
Doping (verb): ergogenic use

14

What does Sig stand for on a prescription?

Signa- Latin for directions

15

List characteristics and examples of C–1 drugs

No accepted medical use in the United States
Examples are heroin, ecstasy (MDMA), cocaine

16

List characteristics and examples of C-2 drugs

Cannot be called in, highest level of restriction for medicinal drugs, no refills allowed
Examples include OxyContin, morphine, Fentanyl, Percocet

17

Describe the characteristics and give examples of C-3 drugs

Can only be refilled five times in six months, can be called in
Examples include barbiturates

18

Describe characteristics and give examples of C-4 drugs

Can be called in, can only be refilled five times in six months
Examples include BZD's (Xanax) and THC (marijuana)

19

Give a description examples of a C-5 drug

Pharmacy keeps a log of prescriptions Example: cough syrups containing codeine

20

What is the significance of dispense as written option on prescription?

If not checked, patient will be given generic by law

21

What is an example of a drug that does not have a child safety cap by law?

Nitroglycerin

22

How should medications be disposed of?

Returned to pharmacy on specified days

23

Which drug does MethCheck track?

Sudafed

24

What does the abbreviation ac mean on a prescription?

Before meals

25

What does the abbreviation hs mean on a prescription?

At bedtime

26

What does the abbreviation c mean on a prescription?

Meals/food

27

What does the abbreviation ut dict mean on the prescription?

As directed

28

What does the abbreviation aa mean on a prescription?

Affected area

29

What does the abbreviation gtt mean on a prescription?

Drops or droplets

30

What does the abbreviation qs mean on a prescription?

Sufficient quantity; "top it off"

31

How many milliliters in a teaspoon?

5 mL

32

How many teaspoons in a tablespoon?

3 teaspoons

33

How many pounds in 1 kg?

2.2 pounds

34

How many milliliters in an ounce?

30 mL

35

How many tablespoons per ounce?

2

36

What does 0.9% normal saline mean?

0.9 g of normal saline per 100 mL

37

What is the difference between function of agonist and antagonist drugs?

Agonist stimulate receptors, antagonists block receptors

38

Would an acid/acid chemical pair be ionized or unionized? Lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Unionized, lipophilic

39

Would an acid/base chemical pair be ionized or unionized? Lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Ionized, hydrophilic

40

What kind of drug must be used to reach the placenta or to penetrate the blood brain barrier?

Lipophilic drug

41

Which organ metabolizes lipophilic drugs?

Liver

42

Which organ metabolizes hydrophilic drugs?

Kidneys

43

What should you do to an acidic drug if you want it to be excreted in urine?

Alkalinize it to give it a charge so that it becomes hydrophilic

44

Should an inhaled drug be lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Hydrophilic so that it remains in lungs rather than passing to bloodstream

45

Where does most absorption of PO drugs occur?

In the small intestine

46

What percentage of parenteral drugs are bioavailable?

100%

47

What is a depot drug?

A parenteral drug with a long half life

48

What is CP 450?

Cytochrome P450 is a family of enzymes in the liver responsible for degrading ingested substances

49

How long does it take for the body to eliminate a typical drug?

5 to 6 half-lives (5 to 6 hours if half-life is one hour)

50

What is the volume of distribution? How is it increased and decreased?

The extent of drug distribution in the body
(lipophilic drugs have higher Vd's)

51

What is the most abundant protein in the body?

Albumin

52

What is a drug steady state?

When the amount of drug entering the body equals the amount of drug exiting

53

What is the effect of plasma protein binding on drugs?

Drugs bound to plasma proteins are biologically inactive

54

What is a prodrug?

A drug that is transformed from an inactive to an active agent through hepatic metabolism

55

What is the effect of drugs on CP450 enzyme systems?

Drugs can induce or inhibit these enzymes making it a very common path to drug-drug interactions

56

What is secretion?

Movement of certain substances from capillaries (efferent arteriole) into renal tubules

57

Give an example of a drug blocking the secretion of another drug

Probenecid blocks secretion of penicillin (makes urine more acidic, unionized, and lipophilic)

58

Are urine drug screens quantitative or qualitative?

Qualitative (says whether drug is present or absent)

59

Are drugs more likely to target nicotinic receptors or adrenergic receptors?

Adrenergic: more specific targets

60

What is a way to keep an acidic drug out of the urine?

Drink vinegar to make drug nonpolar and fat soluble

61

Will an unbound drug or a drug bound to protein pass through the kidneys more easily?

And unbound drug will pass more easily due to smaller size

62

What is urea comprised of?

Two amines and one ketone

63

What effect does ammonia have on GABA?

Ammonia inhibits GABA uptake, so it prolongs its effect

64

What can happen if the CNS contains too many amines?

Encephalopathy

65

List types of vaccines in order of effectiveness

Live (most effective) – killed – conjugate – toxoids (least effective)

66

What is a bacteria that replicates intracellularly called?

Atypical bacteria

67

Is GABA excitatory or inhibitory?

Inhibitory

68

What is the relationship between dopamine and acetylcholine in the CNS?

They counteract and balance one another

69

Why is it hard to treat a patient with both schizophrenia and Parkinson's?

Schizophrenia is too much dopamine in the front of the brain, Parkinson's is not enough dopamine in the back of brain

70

What are the precursors for norepinephrine and epinephrine synthesis?

Phenylalanine and tyrosine

71

What is the precursor for 5–HT (serotonin) synthesis?

L-tryptophan

72

What is the precursor for dopamine synthesis?

L–dopa

73

Why would you give l-dopa to a patient with low dopamine in the CNS?

Dopamine cannot cross the blood brain barrier, but L-dopa can

74

What is the precursor for GABA synthesis?

Glutamate

75

What is the precursor for acetylcholine synthesis?

Choline

76

Which neurotransmitter stimulates A1, A2, B1, and B2?

Epinephrine

77

Which neurotransmitter stimulates A1, A2, and B1?

Norepinephrine

78

Which is a more potent vasoconstrictor, epinephrine or norepinephrine?

Norepinephrine, because it does not activate B2 (a vasodilator)

79

Name an anabolic steroid

Testosterone (prednisone is NOT an anabolic steroid)

80

What is meant by the term cushingoid?

Too much steroid (eg. prednisone)

81

Give five examples of monoamines

Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, 5-HT (serotonin), melatonin

82

What is monoamine oxidase?

MAO is an enzyme that "chews up" monoamines

83

What chews up ACH?

Acetylcholinesterase

84

What three chemicals make up the alphabet of the immune system?

Interferons, interleukins, and cytokines

85

What type of drug inhibits the COX pathway of prostaglandin production?

NSAIDS

86

What type of drug inhibits arachidonic acid production?

Steroids (prednisone)

87

What is the difference between inotropy and Chronotropy?

Inotropy – contraction strength
Chronotropy – contraction rate

88

What is the difference in function between prostaglandins and angiotensin II on the renal arteriole?

Prostaglandins keep afferent arteriole open
Angiotensin II constricts efferent arteriole

89

Compare the actions of a sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drug

Sympathomimetic stimulates sympathetic nervous system, sympatholytic inhibits sympathetic nervous system

90

What effect does a cholinergic drug have on the parasympathetic nervous system?

Cholinergics stimulate PNS

91

What effect does an adrenergic drug have on the sympathetic nervous system?

Adrenergics stimulate SNS

92

Name the actions of A-1, B-1 and B-2 stimulators

A-1: vasoconstriction
B-1: tachycardia
B-2: bronchodilation and vasodilation
*A-1 opposes B-2

93

How many calories in one gram of carbs?

4

94

Explain how NSAIDs can lead to kidney failure

NSAIDs inhibit production of prostaglandins, causing closure of the afferent arteriole and increased creatinine

95

Why should pregnant women avoid taking NSAIDs?

They lower prostaglandins and can cause closure of the fetal ductus arteriosis