Flashcards in Intro Material Deck (95):
The science of proper preparation, dispensing, and utilization of drugs
What should you think of when you hear pharmacokinetics?
ADME: absorption distribution metabolism and excretion
Describe dilution and succussion
Watered down, shaken drug given under belief that 'like cures like'
Why has complementary and alternative medicine gained popularity in recent years?
Patients like control/autonomy, natural products
What is required of generic medications?
They must contain 80% of bioequivalency of brand name product
What is an orphan drug?
A drug that treats rare orbs cure diseases, therefore not mass produced
What is the strongest warning level issued by FDA?
What is the difference between an anaphylactoid and an anaphylactic drug reaction?
Anaphylactoid – no antibodies involved, can cause reaction on first exposure
Anaphylactic – antibodies involved, appears with second exposure
The science of drug action
What is a cross sensitivity?
Reactions to two different drugs that usually occur concurrently (for example penicillin and cephalosporins)
What is Stevens-Johnson syndrome?
A severe progression of skin rash to skin sloughing involving mucous membranes and requiring IV steroids
Describe the new FDA pharmaceutical classification requirements
Must provide info about drug effects in pregnancy, lactation, and females and males with reproductive potential
What is the difference between ergogenics and doping?
Ergogenic (noun): a performance enhancing agent
Doping (verb): ergogenic use
What does Sig stand for on a prescription?
Signa- Latin for directions
List characteristics and examples of C–1 drugs
No accepted medical use in the United States
Examples are heroin, ecstasy (MDMA), cocaine
List characteristics and examples of C-2 drugs
Cannot be called in, highest level of restriction for medicinal drugs, no refills allowed
Examples include OxyContin, morphine, Fentanyl, Percocet
Describe the characteristics and give examples of C-3 drugs
Can only be refilled five times in six months, can be called in
Examples include barbiturates
Describe characteristics and give examples of C-4 drugs
Can be called in, can only be refilled five times in six months
Examples include BZD's (Xanax) and THC (marijuana)
Give a description examples of a C-5 drug
Pharmacy keeps a log of prescriptions Example: cough syrups containing codeine
What is the significance of dispense as written option on prescription?
If not checked, patient will be given generic by law
What is an example of a drug that does not have a child safety cap by law?
How should medications be disposed of?
Returned to pharmacy on specified days
Which drug does MethCheck track?
What does the abbreviation ac mean on a prescription?
What does the abbreviation hs mean on a prescription?
What does the abbreviation c mean on a prescription?
What does the abbreviation ut dict mean on the prescription?
What does the abbreviation aa mean on a prescription?
What does the abbreviation gtt mean on a prescription?
Drops or droplets
What does the abbreviation qs mean on a prescription?
Sufficient quantity; "top it off"
How many milliliters in a teaspoon?
How many teaspoons in a tablespoon?
How many pounds in 1 kg?
How many milliliters in an ounce?
How many tablespoons per ounce?
What does 0.9% normal saline mean?
0.9 g of normal saline per 100 mL
What is the difference between function of agonist and antagonist drugs?
Agonist stimulate receptors, antagonists block receptors
Would an acid/acid chemical pair be ionized or unionized? Lipophilic or hydrophilic?
Would an acid/base chemical pair be ionized or unionized? Lipophilic or hydrophilic?
What kind of drug must be used to reach the placenta or to penetrate the blood brain barrier?
Which organ metabolizes lipophilic drugs?
Which organ metabolizes hydrophilic drugs?
What should you do to an acidic drug if you want it to be excreted in urine?
Alkalinize it to give it a charge so that it becomes hydrophilic
Should an inhaled drug be lipophilic or hydrophilic?
Hydrophilic so that it remains in lungs rather than passing to bloodstream
Where does most absorption of PO drugs occur?
In the small intestine
What percentage of parenteral drugs are bioavailable?
What is a depot drug?
A parenteral drug with a long half life
What is CP 450?
Cytochrome P450 is a family of enzymes in the liver responsible for degrading ingested substances
How long does it take for the body to eliminate a typical drug?
5 to 6 half-lives (5 to 6 hours if half-life is one hour)
What is the volume of distribution? How is it increased and decreased?
The extent of drug distribution in the body
(lipophilic drugs have higher Vd's)
What is the most abundant protein in the body?
What is a drug steady state?
When the amount of drug entering the body equals the amount of drug exiting
What is the effect of plasma protein binding on drugs?
Drugs bound to plasma proteins are biologically inactive
What is a prodrug?
A drug that is transformed from an inactive to an active agent through hepatic metabolism
What is the effect of drugs on CP450 enzyme systems?
Drugs can induce or inhibit these enzymes making it a very common path to drug-drug interactions
What is secretion?
Movement of certain substances from capillaries (efferent arteriole) into renal tubules
Give an example of a drug blocking the secretion of another drug
Probenecid blocks secretion of penicillin (makes urine more acidic, unionized, and lipophilic)
Are urine drug screens quantitative or qualitative?
Qualitative (says whether drug is present or absent)
Are drugs more likely to target nicotinic receptors or adrenergic receptors?
Adrenergic: more specific targets
What is a way to keep an acidic drug out of the urine?
Drink vinegar to make drug nonpolar and fat soluble
Will an unbound drug or a drug bound to protein pass through the kidneys more easily?
And unbound drug will pass more easily due to smaller size
What is urea comprised of?
Two amines and one ketone
What effect does ammonia have on GABA?
Ammonia inhibits GABA uptake, so it prolongs its effect
What can happen if the CNS contains too many amines?
List types of vaccines in order of effectiveness
Live (most effective) – killed – conjugate – toxoids (least effective)
What is a bacteria that replicates intracellularly called?
Is GABA excitatory or inhibitory?
What is the relationship between dopamine and acetylcholine in the CNS?
They counteract and balance one another
Why is it hard to treat a patient with both schizophrenia and Parkinson's?
Schizophrenia is too much dopamine in the front of the brain, Parkinson's is not enough dopamine in the back of brain
What are the precursors for norepinephrine and epinephrine synthesis?
Phenylalanine and tyrosine
What is the precursor for 5–HT (serotonin) synthesis?
What is the precursor for dopamine synthesis?
Why would you give l-dopa to a patient with low dopamine in the CNS?
Dopamine cannot cross the blood brain barrier, but L-dopa can
What is the precursor for GABA synthesis?
What is the precursor for acetylcholine synthesis?
Which neurotransmitter stimulates A1, A2, B1, and B2?
Which neurotransmitter stimulates A1, A2, and B1?
Which is a more potent vasoconstrictor, epinephrine or norepinephrine?
Norepinephrine, because it does not activate B2 (a vasodilator)
Name an anabolic steroid
Testosterone (prednisone is NOT an anabolic steroid)
What is meant by the term cushingoid?
Too much steroid (eg. prednisone)
Give five examples of monoamines
Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, 5-HT (serotonin), melatonin
What is monoamine oxidase?
MAO is an enzyme that "chews up" monoamines
What chews up ACH?
What three chemicals make up the alphabet of the immune system?
Interferons, interleukins, and cytokines
What type of drug inhibits the COX pathway of prostaglandin production?
What type of drug inhibits arachidonic acid production?
What is the difference between inotropy and Chronotropy?
Inotropy – contraction strength
Chronotropy – contraction rate
What is the difference in function between prostaglandins and angiotensin II on the renal arteriole?
Prostaglandins keep afferent arteriole open
Angiotensin II constricts efferent arteriole
Compare the actions of a sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drug
Sympathomimetic stimulates sympathetic nervous system, sympatholytic inhibits sympathetic nervous system
What effect does a cholinergic drug have on the parasympathetic nervous system?
Cholinergics stimulate PNS
What effect does an adrenergic drug have on the sympathetic nervous system?
Adrenergics stimulate SNS
Name the actions of A-1, B-1 and B-2 stimulators
B-2: bronchodilation and vasodilation
*A-1 opposes B-2
How many calories in one gram of carbs?
Explain how NSAIDs can lead to kidney failure
NSAIDs inhibit production of prostaglandins, causing closure of the afferent arteriole and increased creatinine