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What are the learning outcomes of the FOODSAFE program?

● Describe a culture of food safety
● Describe a food handler's responsibility in protecting food from contamination
● Identify applicable laws governing food safety and the authorities responsible for enforcement
● Explain how to handle a foodborne illness complaint
● Train individuals in applying safe food handling practices


Who is responsible for the safety of the food?

Owners, managers, cooks, dishwashers, servers


What is the purpose of following safe food handling practices?

There are safe food handling practices shoul be followed to protect your health, your customers' health, the reputation of your establishment, and your job.


Who is responsible for regulating food safety?

Each province/territory has its own regulations. It is the role of the responsible health authority to ensure that food service establishments meet the food safety requirements.


Who are PHIs and EHOs?

● Public Health Inspectors and Environmental Health Officers
● Serve as consultants and educations for food safety as well as conducting inspections and enforcing regulations.


How should one handle a foodborne illness complaint?

● Record as much infomration as possible about the complaint on a Foodborne Illness Report form
● Reccomend that they contact a health care professional
● Never attempt to diagnose the illness or suggest treatments
● Take their concerns seriously


List the three causes of food contamination?

Chemical, physical, biological


What is chemical contamination?

Sources include: cleaning agents, pesticides, and dissolved metals.
Reduce risk by: storing chemicals away from food in properly labeled containers.


What is physical contamination?

Examples: glass, wood, hair, bandages, insects, metal particles, and stone.
Reduce risk by: practicing good hygiene, inspecting all incoming food, storing food away from possible physical contaminants, and by following proper pest control programs and equipment maintenance.


What is biological contamination?

Sources include: infected workers, contaminated work surgaces, cross-contamination, improperly washed dishes/surfaces, and contaminated water used in food preparation and dishwashing.


Most foodborne illness outbreaks are caused by which of the three causes of food contamination?



List 10 improper food handling practices that have cuased foodborne illness outbreaks. (Don't worry about listing them in order, but be sure to know which is first on the list.)

● Improper Cooling
● Advance Preparation
● Infected Food Handlers
● Improper Reheating
● Improper Hot-Holding
● Contaminated Raw Food or Ingredient
● Unsafe Source
● Use of Leftovers
● Cross-Contamination
● Inadequate Cooking


What shoul you do when questioned about ingredients?

Always check with the chef; if you cannot verify the ingredients with absolute certainty, say that you are unsure. DO NOT GUESS!


What are microbes? (What are the different types? Are they good or bad?)

● AKA micro-organisms
● Living things
● Too small to be seen without the help of a microscope
● Bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa, fungi
● Some are benefitial (ie. yeast, moulds and bacteria) and produce foods (ie. yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, soy sauce, beer, wine)
● Some live in our intestitnes to help us digest food
● Some can cause illness/death = pathogens



● All around us
● Most are harmless/benefitial
● Some can make us very sick
● Pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter, E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella are among the most frequent causes of foodborne illness.



● Smaller than bacteria
● Frequently cause illness
● Found in contaminated food but will not grow in food
● Hepatitis A and the Norovirus are examples of viruses that are transffered from food handlers to food often because of improper handwashing.



● Live on/inside another animal or person.
● Dependant on the host for nutrients
● Trichinella may be found in undercooked pork or other meats
● Roundworms may be found in raw fish (ie. sushi, sashimi)



● One-celled animals
● Giardia lamblia (Beaver Fever) may be found in rivers, lakes, streams, and shallow wells
● Giardiasis (one of the most frequent causes of non-bacterial diarrhea in North America), may be caused by washing produce in water contaminated with Giardia lamblia



● Grow on animals, plants, humans, decaying organic matter... anywhere that is warm and damp
● Many are benefitial
● Some can spoil foods
● Scraping/cutting mould off of food may not make food safe; mould may produce toxins that will remain in the food.



● Some types of bacteria are able to produce a hard coating to protect themselves from stressful/unfavourable conditions
-ie. extreme heat, dryness, cold, and chemicals
● Can survive high temperatures, drying, boiling, freezing, or even chemicals like cleaning agents and disinfectants.
● When conditions for bacterial growth improve, its coating splits open and a normal bacterium emerges, beginning to multiply in the food
-an example of an ideal condition is when cooked food is removed from the heat and left at room temperature
● Are a concern when food is cooked in advance, allowed to cool too slowly, and is served cool/improperly re-heated later.



● Produced by some bacteria when they multiply
● Will make people sick when consumed
● Some can be destroyed by cooking
● Some are heat resistant
● Production can be controlled by paying close attention to time and temperature when storing/preparing food
● Might not affect appearance of food; food containing toxins may not look, smell, or taste any different than uncontaminated food


What are factors that affect bacterial growth?




● Required for bacteria to survive
● Some bacteria only need simple nutrients, but other require a more complex diet including protein
● Moist foods that are rich in protein such as meat, milk, eggs, and fish, are good food sources to support the growth of pathogenic bacteria



● Bacteria do not grow in an acidic environment
- ie. lemons/lemon juice, vinegar, some berries/fruits
● When working with low acid/neutral foods, special care needs to be taken to ensure that bacteria cannot grow
- ie. vegetables, eggs, meats, and soft cheese



● DANGER ZONE: ranges from 4 degrees to 60 degrees (Celcius)
● Harmful bacteria can multiply rapidly in the danger zone
● Temperatures below or above the danger zone will slow/stop bacteria growth.
● Temperature control is one of the best ways to reduce the risk of foodborne illness caused by bacteria


List the different temepratures and the state of the food in each

100°C ~ Boiling (bacteria die, spores and toxins may survive)
74°C ~ Cooking/Reheating (bacteria die, spores and toxins may survive)
60°C ~ Hot Holding
4-60°C ~ DANGER ZONE (bacteria multiple rapidly; food should be kept out of this range)
0-4°C ~ Refrigeration/Chilling & Thawing/Freezing (most bacteria survive but will not multiply quickly)
-18°C ~ Storing Frozen (most bacteria survive but will not grow)



● Single bacterium will double every 20 minutes
● Bacteria grow by multiplying
● When there is a small number of pathogens, the risk is usually low
● When higher risk foods are left in the DANGER ZONE, pathogens multiply rapidly.
● Restricting the amount of time that foods are left in the DANGER ZONE will help to reduce the risk
● Regulating time (as well as temperature) is the most effective way to prevent foodborne illness


What are the two types of bacteria? Briefly explain each.

● There are two types of bacteria: aerobic and anaerobia
● Aerobic bacteria require oxygen to grow
● Anaerobic bacteria grow only when no oxygen is present
● Most bacteria that can cause food borne illness are aerobic, but some very dangerous bacteria thrive only in anaerobic, oxygen-free environments
- one notable anaerobic bacterium is Clostridium botulinum which causes botulism


What happens if foods are improperly processed and then stored at room temperature?

When foods are improperly processed and then stored at room temperature in air tight conditions such as cans, bottles, vacuum packaging or immersed in oil, anaerobic spores may survive and grow.


Vaccumm Packaging

● Can help to extend shelf-life and quality of food by removing oxygen
● Does not eliminate the need for food to be kept at proper storage temperatures, because some bacteria do not require oxygen for growth
● Most vacuum packaged foods must be kept out of the DANGER ZONE.
- especially important for foods that are often served without additional cooking