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Flashcards in Food Science Study Questions Deck (15):

Name the types of moist heat cooking

Stewing and Braising. Used for less tender cuts of meat. Meats are cooked covered in fluids for a long period of time at a low temperature to allow collagen to gelatinize (elastin will remain unaltered). Acids added will increase water-binding capacity and fibers to add moisture.


What cuts of beef are generally the most tender

Loin cuts: sirloin, short loin, ribs. Typically cuts from backbone and upper part of animal because they are least exercised. Shoulder and upper legs are less tender. Least tender cuts come from leg muscles, flank, and neck.


What are the five methods to tenderize meats

1. Aging - hold at proper temperature for set period
2. Mechanical Tenderization - pounding/passing through cutting blades. Cross grain cutting, thinly slicing.
3. Enzymes: bromelin (pineapple), papin (papaya), chymopapain (papaya), ficin (figs) marinate during cooking.
4. Moist Heat Cooking (stewing and braising)
5. Electrical Stimulation - low voltage stimulation immediately after slaughter


Name the types of dry heat cooking

broiling, roasting, frying, panbroiling, grilling, frying, stirfrying


Why must veal be cooked in moist heat

it is not tender, has little fat, and increases amount of connective tissue


What is the toughest cut of beef and why

flank, long muscle fibers and little fat


Minimum cooking temperature for meat and poultry

meat - 160
poultry - 180


What food additive helps keep cured meats pink

nitrites, which set color and prevent botulism


Which department inspects fish and shellfish

Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service


What does the USDA inspection meat

Mandatory inspection for meats sold across state lines, identifies if animal was healthy and slaughtered under sanitary conditions. This inspection does no grade quality of meat (as this grading is voluntary).


What characteristics are used for meat grading

marbling, firmness, color, and texture


Describe the types of meat gradings

1. Prime: most tender, juicy, colorful, has most fat, most costly.
2. Select: most lean
3. Standard: veal and lamb (similar to select)
4. Pork: acceptable or utility


What is the finish on a cut of meat

distribution and amount of fat/marbling


What is most likely cause of trichinosis poisoning

a parasite found in pork and wild game,


What is commonly referred to as the cafeteria bacteria?

Clostridium Perfringens. Found in meats/poultry that are improperly held (usually 120-130), and bacteria releases toxin in the gut in anaerobic conditions. S/S: N/V/D, ab pain.