Flashcards in Food Science Study Questions Deck (15):
Name the types of moist heat cooking
Stewing and Braising. Used for less tender cuts of meat. Meats are cooked covered in fluids for a long period of time at a low temperature to allow collagen to gelatinize (elastin will remain unaltered). Acids added will increase water-binding capacity and fibers to add moisture.
What cuts of beef are generally the most tender
Loin cuts: sirloin, short loin, ribs. Typically cuts from backbone and upper part of animal because they are least exercised. Shoulder and upper legs are less tender. Least tender cuts come from leg muscles, flank, and neck.
What are the five methods to tenderize meats
1. Aging - hold at proper temperature for set period
2. Mechanical Tenderization - pounding/passing through cutting blades. Cross grain cutting, thinly slicing.
3. Enzymes: bromelin (pineapple), papin (papaya), chymopapain (papaya), ficin (figs) marinate during cooking.
4. Moist Heat Cooking (stewing and braising)
5. Electrical Stimulation - low voltage stimulation immediately after slaughter
Name the types of dry heat cooking
broiling, roasting, frying, panbroiling, grilling, frying, stirfrying
Why must veal be cooked in moist heat
it is not tender, has little fat, and increases amount of connective tissue
What is the toughest cut of beef and why
flank, long muscle fibers and little fat
Minimum cooking temperature for meat and poultry
meat - 160
poultry - 180
What food additive helps keep cured meats pink
nitrites, which set color and prevent botulism
Which department inspects fish and shellfish
Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service
What does the USDA inspection meat
Mandatory inspection for meats sold across state lines, identifies if animal was healthy and slaughtered under sanitary conditions. This inspection does no grade quality of meat (as this grading is voluntary).
What characteristics are used for meat grading
marbling, firmness, color, and texture
Describe the types of meat gradings
1. Prime: most tender, juicy, colorful, has most fat, most costly.
2. Select: most lean
3. Standard: veal and lamb (similar to select)
4. Pork: acceptable or utility
What is the finish on a cut of meat
distribution and amount of fat/marbling
What is most likely cause of trichinosis poisoning
a parasite found in pork and wild game,