Foot Anatomy Flashcards Preview

PMR > Foot Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Foot Anatomy Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...

What makes up the deltoid ligament

- triangular shape ligament on medial aspect (subdivided into 4 parts)
1. Tibionavicular part of the medial ligament
2. tibiocalcaneal part
3. posterior tibiotalar part
4. anterior tibiotalar part


lateral ligaments of ankle joint

1. anterior Talofibular ligament
2. calcaneofibular ligament
4. posterior talofibular ligament


flexor retinaculum of ankle

bony depression formed by medial malleolus


what goes through the flexor retrinaculum of ankle

medial side
tibialis posterior tendon
FDL tendon
posterior tibial artery
tibial nerve
FHL tendon


fibular retrinaculum

binds the tendons of the fibulariis longs and fibulas braves muscle to the lateral side


Extensor Digitorum brevis

O: superiolateral part of CALCANEOUS
I: base of phalanx of greater tow and lateral to EDL on toes 2 - 4
I: depp fibular nerve
F: extend metatarsophalanges joint of the great toe


Abductor Hallicus

0: medial process of CALCANEA TUBEROSITY
I: medial side of proximal phalanx of great toe
I: medial plantar nerve from TN
F: Abduct 1st toe


Flexor Digitorum brevis

O: calcareous tuberosity
i: plantar surface of middle phalanges of middle 4 toes
i: medial plantar nerve from tibial nerve (S1,2,3)
A: flexes lateral 4 toes


Abductor digiti minimi

O: lateral and medial process of calcanea tuberosity , band of Connective tissue connecting calcenous of metatarsal V
I: Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of little toe
I: lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve (S1,2,3)
A: abducts little toe


quadratus plantae

O: medial surface of calcaneus and lateral process of calcanea tuberosity
I: lateral side of tendon of FDL on sole of foot
I: lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve (S1,2,3)
A: assist FDL tendon in flexing lateral 4 toes



O: first lumbrical; medial side of tendon of flexor digitorum longs ass/ with toe 2
2,3,4th - adjacent structures of adjacent tendon FDL
I: medial free margins of extender hoods of toes 2-5
I: first lumbrical - medial plantar nerve from tibial nerve
2,3,4 - lateral plantar from tibial nerve (S2,3)
A: FLEXIOn of MP joint and EXTENSION of IP joint



O: plantar surface of cuboid and lateral cuneiform
i: base of proximal phalanx
I: medial plantar nerve from tibial nerve
A: flexes MP joint of the great toe


Adductor hallicus

I: lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve (S1,2,3)
A: adducts grater tow at MP joint


Flexor digiti minimi brevis

flexes little toe at MP joint
I: lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve (S1,2,3)


dorsal interossei

I: lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve , first and second dorsal interossei also by deep fibular nerve
A: abduction of toes 2-4 at MP joint


plantar interossei

I: lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve (S1,2,3)
O: adduction of toes 3-5 at MP joint


MTP sprain

Acute injury to the ligaments and capsule of the MTP joint. “Turf toe” is commonly seen in athletes. Chronic sprains may lead to hallux rigidus


Hallux valgus

> 15 degree of lateral deviation of 1st MTP
Lateral deviation of the first toe greater than the normal angle of 15 degrees between
the tarsus and metatarsus. This may lead to a painful prominence of the medial aspect
of the MTP joint (bunion)


hallux rigidus

Degenerative condition of the first MTP joint leading to pain and stiffness (great toe arthritis of MTP joint)


claw toe

extension mTP
flexion PIP
flexion DIP


hammer toe

flexion of PIP


treatment of hammer toe

show should be 1/2 inch longer than longest toe


causes of hammer toe

chronic tight shoes


causes of claw foot

incompetence of foot intrinsic muscles
secondary to neurological disorders ( diabetes , alcohol. neuropathies, CMT , spinal cord tumour)


treatment of claw toe

shoes with soft and roomy with high tow boxes
splints available
surgical if necessary


Mallot toe

flexion of DIP with normal alignment of PIP and MTP


treatment of ballot toe

must trim callous
take x-ray to r/o fracture
good shoes with high toe boxes


Lisfranc fracture

traumatic disruption of the tarsometatarsal joints involving fracture, dislocation, or both


treatment for lisfranc

1. conservative : non displaced : non WB , immobilization and support thereafter

2. Surgical - Stabilization is integral to maintaining the bony architecture of entire foot


Jones fracture

transverse fracture through the base of the 5th metatarsal