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Flashcards in For exam 3 Deck (103):
1

when are protein digesting capabilities depressed in mammals

the first 24-48 hours after birth

2

why are the protein digesting capabilities depressed in mammals for the first 24-48 hours after birth

1. Colostrum contains immunoglobulins which are proteins
-these help fight diseases and should not be broken down
2. the first 12-24 hours SI lining is open to protein absorption

3

where are the immunoglobulins absorbed

the Lacteals (lymph) of the villi

4

where do all monosaccharide sugars absorbed from the small intestine to blood go to and what are they converted into

1. Goes to the liver
2. converted to Glucose

5

What does the liver do with the sugars that it has turned into glucose (3 things)

1. liver may use it for energy
2. May store it as glycogen
3. Pass on to bloodstream

6

In monogastrics how long does it take after a big meal for the blood glucose levels to increase

1 to 2 hours

7

Information about Insulin
1. where is it synthesized
2. when is it released into blood
3. what does insulin do

1. synthesized in the islet cells of pancreas
2. released into blood when pancreas senses an increase in blood glucose
3. insulin causes body cells to take up glucose from blood and levels decrease

8

What are glycemic index values for food/feeds

1. numerical values assigned to human foods/horse feeds
2. the higher the number the greater the increase in blood glucose after a meal containing that food

9

Type II Diabetes in Humans
1. what is its characteristic
2. causes
3. what happens

1. consistently elevated blood glucose levels
2. causes are: overweight, heavy sugar/starch consumption which constantly requires the insulin response
3. plenty of insulin but the cells are less responsive to it

10

What is the equivalent to Type II diabetes in horses

Equine Metabolic Syndrome

11

1.What is another name for Equine Metabolic Syndrome
2.what are the symptoms
3. how can you treat this problem

1. Insulin Resistance
2. symptoms: laminitis, lethargy, fat deposits, obesity
3. decrease high sugar pasture grasses, sweet feed, and cereal grains
-instead use oil, protein, beet pulp, and rice bran

12

what are the bumps in the Large intestine called

sacculations (haustra)

13

what is the function of the sacculations

absorb water

14

Functions of the Large Intestine

1. recycles H2O and feces are drier
2. Microbial fermentation

15

what are 4 enzymes produced by the microbes

1. cellulase,
2. hemicellulase
3. amylase
4. protease

16

what is fermented in the LI

1. fiber
2. residual starch
3. residual protein

17

Main starch/fiber end products

Volatile fatty acids

18

3 Volatile acids

1. Acetic Acid (2 Carbons) most abundant
2. Propionic Acid (3 Carbons)
3. Butyric Acid (4 carbons) least abundant

19

what are volatile fatty acids used for

1. cell energy
2. fat and milk fat synthesis

20

what are 3 hind gut fermenters

horses
rats
rabbits

21

how much of a hind gut fermenters daily energy comes from VFAs

50%

22

what is coprophagy and who does this

1.eat own/ others waste for more nutrients
2. horses, rats, rabbits,

23

why would an animal eat waste

1. recycles undigested nutrients again for more utilization
2. Young might eat mothers waste to get inoculating gut microbes from parent
3. Mother might eat young's feces so predators cant smell where the baby has been

24

what is the avian digestive tract designed for

eating quickly and flying away

25

what does precocial mean

requiring little to no parental care after birth

26

what is the roof of the avian mouth called and describe it

choanal slit
-papillae
-connection between nasal cavity and mouth
-sense of taste and smell limited

27

what is the crop in the avian GIT and its functions

1. first compartment
2. temporary storage
3. not a lot of digestion

28

what is the proventriculus

glandular stomach in the avian GIT
-no rennin

29

what is the ventriculus

1. gizzard
2. thick muscular walls,
3. seed eating birds ingest stones so when the stomach contracts it grinds up the seeds

30

what calcium source do laying hens need

course limestone

31

what enzyme does the avian SI not produce

lactase

32

What is unique about hindguts in poultry

1. 2 ceca
2. microbe fermentation capability (also in other hind gut fermenters)

33

what are ratites and some characteristics

1. large flightless birds
2. large cecas
3. can consume more plants in diet
4. short colon

34

what is the cloaca

the common passageway for eggs, feces, and uric acid

35

what is uric acid

nitrogen containing waste product of birds

36

When should you not feed a horse a large meal

1 to 3 hours before working

37

why should you not feed a horse a large meal before working it

1. presses on heart and lungs
2. blood is shunted to muscles and away from digestion

38

what is unique about equine teeth

they have continual eruption
-tooth comes up out of the gum when the crown gets worn done, gives the appearance of continuously growing teeth

39

Why are good teeth critical to horses (what are the negative effects of bad teeth)

1. poor chewing
2. increases chance of impaction

40

Where does the SI attach to in equines

Attaches directly to the cecum rather than the LI

41

how many colons do horses have

2 colons
Ventral colon and dorsal colon

42

what fraction of the digestive tract is the hind gut in horses

2/3

43

What is the horse GIT designed for

many small meals throughout the day
- cant handle more than 3-4 lbs grain/meal

44

when does the horse GIT work best

if it is partially full
"trickle feeding"
-feed soaks up stomach HCL

45

What is Laminitis (founder)

pain and swelling in the laminae of the hoof

46

what is the bone in the hoof that is attached to the laminae

coffin bone

47

what are the signs of laminitis

1. don't move
2. shift weight off front hooves
3. surging pulse in digital artery
4. hoof will be warm to the touch

48

what are the nutritional causes of laminitis

Carbohydrate Overload
-too much easily fermentable carbs
1. lush pastures (sugars
2. Cereal Grains (starch)
3. Fruit (sucrose)

49

What happens when there is carb overload in horses that causes laminitis

the normal site of starch and sugar digestion is the SI, but when there is an overload starch and sugar do not get broken down all the way and continue into the LI where they ferment
1. VFAs increase very fast which lowers the acidity of the LI
2. kills microbes
3. death of microbes produce toxins which is absorbed into blood
4. toxins go to hoof and disrupt blood flow

50

what is the ruminant GIT designed for

eat quickly and hide from predators
1. 3 pregastric compartments which can be considered enlargements of the esophogus

51

what two parts of the ruminant GIT play a small role in carb fermentation
and what is the main fermentation site

1. Colon and Cecum
2. Rumen is the main site

52

What are 2 of the microbes in the rumen (which are also in the horse hindgut)

1. Bacteria
2. Protozoa

53

Characteristics of Bacteria in the Rumen
1. Number per mL
2. How do they move
3. What do they do

1. one billion per mL rumen contents
2. non motile, physically attach to feed particles
3. bacteria release enzymes for fermentation

54

Characteristics of Protozoa in the Rumen
1. number per mL
2. how do they move
3. what do they do
4. Aerobic or anaerobic

1. one million per mL rumen contents
2. swim using flagella
3. helps ferment feeds and preys on bacteria too as a source of nutrition
4. Anaerobic

55

What type of relationship is there between microbes and host animal

synergistic
-mutually beneifical

56

What are 3 things that a host provides microbes

1. warmth
2. constant nutrient supply
3. Ideal pH: 6.0-6.4

57

what is it called if the pH is below 5.5

acidosis

58

what 2 gases are contained in the gas pocket of the rumen

CO2 and methane

59

what is the technical term for cud chewing

rumination

60

how often do ruminants ruminate

in 20-30 minute periods throughout the day
totals 8-11 hours per day

61

what are the 3 steps of rumination

1. regurgitate a cud which is triggered by solids near cardia
2. rechews for 30 seconds
3. reswallow

62

What are 3 important reasons why its good for rumination

1. decrease particle size so it can pass out of reticulo-rumen
2. increase surface area of feeds
3. increases salivation

63

what type of feed is an effective form of forage fiber stimulation that increases chewing

long dry hay

64

what happens to cattle that are on a high grain diet

- do not ruminate very much
- "sham cud chewing" ( fake cud chewing)

65

define eructation

releases of gases from the rumen

66

how much gas is eructated from the rumen per hour and when is it greater

1. 30-100L/hr
2. greater on pasture

67

what causes eructation

stimulation by presence of gas pocket near cardia

68

define bloat

build up of unreleased gas
-left side of body balloons

69

what causes bloat

1. genetic or young calves
2. choking
3. legume pasture or high grain diet

70

What causes frothy/foamy bloat and what are some treatements

1. the gas instead turns to a foam and cannot be released

Treatments
1. tube into rumen plus mineral oil/H2O
2. Poloxalene

71

what is the term meaning before abomasum

pregastric

72

what percent of all carbs, proteins, fats, and oils are modified in some way by microbes

70-80%

73

what percent of carb fermentation is digested in the Small intestine of ruminants

less than 10%

74

what percent of all
1. Fiber
2. Starch
3. Sugars
are fermented by microbes

1. 50-70% fiber
2. 90% starch
3. 98% sugars

75

what are the 2 aspects of rumen development in young ruminants

1. overall size and muscle development
2. papillae growth and development

76

what is micro-encapsulation of omega 3's

a coating around omega 2 oil prevents the omega 3 from being saturated while being in the rumen
-capsule dissolves in the abomasum and releases oil as tryglycerides
-lipase enzyme in small intestine breaks them down and is absorbed into lymph

77

what is a protein a carrier for

carrier for needed amino acids

78

what is the main source of AA's for monogastrics

diet proteins

79

where do ruminants get AA's from

get them from diet proteins and microbes protein in bacterial cells

80

what percent of the daily total amino acids comes from bacteria in ruminants

more than 50%

81

what makes up plant proteins

group of 20+ amino acids

82

what are the 4 most likely limiting essential AA's

1. lysine
2. methionine
3. threonine
4. tryptophan

83

what is the definition of Protein quality

how well a feed's protein provides amino acids in relation to the AA requirements of the animal
"AA profile"

84

what are 4 high quality protein sources

1. eggs
2. meat
3. milk
4. fish

85

what are 2 types of medium quality protein sources

soybeans, cereal grains

86

what are 2 types of low quality protein

keratin, collagen

87

corn and cereal grains are low in what AA and a good source of what AA

low in lysine
good source of methionine

88

soy products are high in what AA but low in what AA

good source of lysine
low in methionine

89

what AA's are legume feeds high and low in

high in lysine
low in methionine

90

3 things about monogastric diets regarding amino acids

1. dietary amino acid balance is critical
2. very well researched
3. AA levels in feeds well known

91

3 things about ruminant diets regarding amino acids

1. dietary amino acid balance less critical
2. rumen microves can synthesize essential AAs
3. microbial protein digested in SI is high quality protein

92

what is a feed additive that can provide amino acids

Purified Synthetic Essential Amino Acids

93

The body cannot store excess amino acids, so what happens to any excess amino acids

Daily amino acids not needed for protein synthesis are degraded in liver and the nitrogen is excreted in manure, (urea in mammals, uric acid in poultry)

94

what is an environmental benefit to using pure amino acid supplements

less excess nitrogen in manure and soil

95

what are the 2 main nutrients for rumen microbial protein synthesis and what are 2 sources of these

VFA's and Ammonia
1. degradable diet protein (RDP)
2. Dietary Urea

96

what are microflora and what do they do

1. good bacteria
2. they line gut and mix with gut contents

97

2 good species of bacteria

1. lactobacillus
2. bifidobacterium

98

what do the good bacteria in the SI help inhibit

helps inhibit pathogenic bacteria from taking up residence

99

2 types of pathogenic bacteria

1. E.coli
2. salmonella

100

what are 5 ways good bacteria population decreases

1. stress
2. withholding feed/water
3. illness
4. major diet changes
5. oral antibiotics

101

2 ways to re-establish good bacteria

1. probiotics
2. prebiotics

102

what are prebiotics and what do they do

prebiotics are natural or synthetic carbs

they stimulate growth and development of good bacteria

103

what are 2 examples of prebiotics

1. inulin
2. lactulose