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Principles of Nutrition > Lipids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipids Deck (26):
1

what is the greek word for lipid and what does it mean

Lipos= fat

2

what are lipids

groups of compounds that are not water soluble, they dissolve in fat solvents (ether, hexanes, alcohol)

3

what are the parts of the "family of lipids" (5)

1. fats (animals) and oils (seeds, plants)
2. steroids/sterols
3. phospholipids/glycolipids
4. waxes
5. fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)

4

what are triglycerides made up of

glycerol and 3 fatty acids

5

what type of bonds hold the fatty acids to the glycerol

ester bonds

6

what breaks down triglicerides

lipase enzymes

7

3 bodily functions of fats/oils

Cellular energy
Source of essential fatty acids
carrier for fat soluble vitamins during digestion

8

how many calories are in 1 gram of fat

9 calories

9

why are fats and oils considered a "cool form of energy"

because the give off little heat during digestion

10

what type of nutrient gives off the most heat during digestion

fiber

11

what is a "safer" form of extra calories: fats or grains

fats

12

why are essential fatty acids needed

1. cant produce in the body
2. for healthy skin and coat

13

3 types of essential fatty acids

1. linoleic acid
2. linolenic acid
3. arachidonic acid

14

what 2 types of essential fatty acids do all animals need

linoleic
linolenic

15

what is the fatty acid that cats need

arachidonic

16

what is the disorder in pigs when they dont get enough fats and oils in the diet

parakeratosis

17

3 functions of body fat (adipose tissue)

1. protection
2. insulation
3. Concentrated form of stored energy

18

what is fat under the skin called

subcutaneous fat

19

where is there internal fat

kidneys, pelvic area

20

what can too much fat cause

a decrease in fertility
hinders cool down in horses
can affect appetite
harder on hooves

21

how can you measure body fat on an animal

body condition scoring

22

3 functions of fats and oils in feed before consumption

1. decrease sorting of ingredients by animals
2. reduction of dust/fines
3. tastes better (palatability)

23

definition of Fat

1. solid @room temp
2. saturated
3. higher melting point

24

definition of oils

1. liquid at room temp
2. lower melting point
3. unsaturated

25

what type of fat do we get from cattle and from pigs

1. cows=tallow
2. hogs=lard

26

difference between saturated and unsaturated

Saturated: all single bonds between carbons, carbons fully saturated with hydrogen, higher melting point

Unsaturated: double bonds between 2 carbons, not all carbons are saturated with hydrogen, lower melting points