Flashcards in Forebrain Deck (17):
What is the forebrain?
Cerebral cortex and a collection of deep nuclei derived from telencephalon (basal ganglia and limbic system) and diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus).
Heavily involved in emotions, unconscious functions, cognitive
Geographically, where is forebrain?
Everything above midbrian (above the tentorium)
What separates the globus pallidus and putamen (external) from thalamus (more internal)?
Significance of internal capsule?
Combo of white (mostly) and grey matter that allows communication between deep nuclei and neocortex...also white matter through which long tracts make their way up to cortex
What does the nucleus accumbens control?
Hippocampus and amygdala location with respect to one another
Hippocampus (posterior) amygdala (anterior)
What are the front and back parts of the corpus callosum called?
TO STUDY THIS ENTIRE LECTURE...LOOK AT PICTURES
YEAH JUST DO IT, IT'S EASIER, USE THESE FOR MINUTE DETAILS
What are the 3 thalamus nuclei?
1. ventrolateral (VL) - receives input from basal ganglia and cerebellum, has output to cortex to help with motor control
2. Ventral posterior lateral (VPL) and 3. Ventral posterior medial (VPM) - receive input from somatosensory (DC) and spinothalamic tracts (STT) serving sensation from contralateral face and body. VPL and VPM output to the post-central gyrus of cortex
these nuclei are where the places where STT and DC converge for very first time. At a convergence site, if you lesion, you will lose everything that converges there (i.e. all contralateral sensation). Before that, the pathways are separate
What does the hypothalamus do?
Collection of nuclei concerned with autonomic functions, appetite, temperature control, circadian rhythm and endocrine regulation...SUPREME COMMAND OF ENDOCRINE AND AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS
What are the hippocampus, amygdala, and septal area/region in charge of? (components of limbic system)
Hippocampus - memory, if damaged new memories may not be formed
amygdala - fear, anxiety
septal area - reward ("sex, drugs, and rock/roll) important in addiction, has nucleus accumbens
Decussation of CST?
@Foramen magnum after medullary pyramids (anything below is ipsi, anything above is contra)
Interruption of CST leads to what?
Upper motor neuron weakness and hyper-reflexia
Decussation of DC
upper spinal cord/lower medulla after necules cuneatus and gracillis
Decussation of STT
Crosses immediately at segment of entry
Do the basal ganglia only govern motor function?
No. also has a role in thought, focus, and emotions