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Flashcards in Forebrain Deck (17):
1

What is the forebrain?

Cerebral cortex and a collection of deep nuclei derived from telencephalon (basal ganglia and limbic system) and diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus).

Heavily involved in emotions, unconscious functions, cognitive

2

Geographically, where is forebrain?

Everything above midbrian (above the tentorium)

3

What separates the globus pallidus and putamen (external) from thalamus (more internal)?

Internal capsule

4

Significance of internal capsule?

Combo of white (mostly) and grey matter that allows communication between deep nuclei and neocortex...also white matter through which long tracts make their way up to cortex

5

What does the nucleus accumbens control?

Reward system

6

Hippocampus and amygdala location with respect to one another

Hippocampus (posterior) amygdala (anterior)

7

What are the front and back parts of the corpus callosum called?

Front: genu

back: splenium

8

TO STUDY THIS ENTIRE LECTURE...LOOK AT PICTURES

YEAH JUST DO IT, IT'S EASIER, USE THESE FOR MINUTE DETAILS

9

What are the 3 thalamus nuclei?

1. ventrolateral (VL) - receives input from basal ganglia and cerebellum, has output to cortex to help with motor control

2. Ventral posterior lateral (VPL) and 3. Ventral posterior medial (VPM) - receive input from somatosensory (DC) and spinothalamic tracts (STT) serving sensation from contralateral face and body. VPL and VPM output to the post-central gyrus of cortex

these nuclei are where the places where STT and DC converge for very first time. At a convergence site, if you lesion, you will lose everything that converges there (i.e. all contralateral sensation). Before that, the pathways are separate

10

What does the hypothalamus do?

Collection of nuclei concerned with autonomic functions, appetite, temperature control, circadian rhythm and endocrine regulation...SUPREME COMMAND OF ENDOCRINE AND AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS

11

What are the hippocampus, amygdala, and septal area/region in charge of? (components of limbic system)

Hippocampus - memory, if damaged new memories may not be formed

amygdala - fear, anxiety

septal area - reward ("sex, drugs, and rock/roll) important in addiction, has nucleus accumbens

12

Decussation of CST?

@Foramen magnum after medullary pyramids (anything below is ipsi, anything above is contra)

13

Interruption of CST leads to what?

Upper motor neuron weakness and hyper-reflexia

14

Decussation of DC

upper spinal cord/lower medulla after necules cuneatus and gracillis

15

Decussation of STT

Crosses immediately at segment of entry

16

Do the basal ganglia only govern motor function?

No. also has a role in thought, focus, and emotions

17

How does cortex talk to basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum?

Cortex talks IPSILATERALLY to:
basal ganglia and thalamus (VL) which then talks back to cortex

Talks CONTRALATERALLY to:
cerebllum, then cerebellum info crosses midline again to talk to cortex