Neuro Important Points Weeks 1-2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro Important Points Weeks 1-2 Deck (22):
1

preoptic

parental behavior, sexual behavior, temperature regulation (larger in males)

2

anterior

parasympathetics, cooling
(think "A/C for cooling you down)

3

suprachiasmatic

Circadian rhythms (inputs from W-ganglion cells in retina)

(C-hiasmatic -> C-irCadian)

4

supraoptic/paraventricular

Vasopression and oxytocin via posterior pituitary
(3 L's of oxytocin = labor, lactation, love)

5

arcuate

tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons (inhibit prolactin), hunger (ghrelin)/ satiety (leptin)

"ARC you lactating?! Good, because your baby is HUNGRY"

6

dorsomedial

activation -> obesity

"Obese whales have dorsal fins"

7

ventromedial

activation -> satiety

(damaged in Prader-Willi syndrome)

8

posterior

sympathetics, heating

9

mammillary bodies

memory, connects to

MaMMillary - MeMory

10

Fornix connects ____ with _____

hippocampus with medial hypothalamus/mammillary bodies

11

Stria terminalis connects ___ with ___

amygdala with (medial) hypothalamus

12

Medial forebrain bundle

amingergic nuclei (brainstem) with higher cortical areas (i.e. septal area, hypothalamus)

13

Fibrils vs. inclusions

Fibrils - ultrastructural (nm size) are VERY toxic
inclusions - can be seen with light microscopy, LESS toxic

14

What are three mechanisms of neurodegeneration?

Excitotoxicity, free radicals, protein fibrilogenesis

15

Tau diseases

Pick's disease, progressive nsupranuclear palsy (causes Parkinsonism, but not a synucleinopathy, post-encephalitic Parkinsonism, Alzheimer's

16

a-synuclein diseases

multiple system atrophy, Lewy body disorders (Parkinson's, Lewy body dementia)

17

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) diseases

Familial ALS

18

B-amyloid diseases

Extracellular!!!
all other fibrillogenesis proteins are intracellular
Alzheimer's

19

How to treat epilepsy with focal-onset seizure

oxcarbazepine (first line)

20

How to treat epilepsy with generalized-onset seizures (2 drugs)

absence epilepsy - ethosuximide
other types - lamotrigine

21

Risk of using valproic acid

acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis, hepatic failure, neural tube defects

22

Risk of using felbamate, carbamazepine, phenytoin

aplastic anemia (phenytoin is also hepatotoxic)