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Flashcards in Intro Deck (18):
1

Three common elements of a response

- SENSING environmental signals
- PROCESSING the info
- PRODUCING an appropriate response

2

Common elements of nervous system

sensory cells - sense environment

neurons - receive, process, and transmit info over long distances

glia - support and monitoring cells

effector cells - neurons talk to these cells to create responses

3

Neurons are polarized or depolarized?

Polarized!

4

Parts of neuron

- somatodendritic (gray matter) - body of cell (contains nucleus) protein synthesis, receives synaptic info
- axonal (white matter) - transmit the signals over long distances to follower cells

5

Dendritic spines

specialized sites for signal reception at the synapse, contains receptors that convert chemical signals to electrical signals

6

Where do axons end?

synaptic bouton
where electrical signals are converted to chemical signals to be released onto follower cells...axons fire in "all or none" fashion

7

How is a membrane potential (charge difference) generated?

When positive and negative charges are separated across a lipid bilayer

8

Standard convention for membrane potential?

Inside potential - outside potential

9

What does the neuron use to transmit signals between different parts of nervous system?

ACTION POTENTIALS

10

Can ions move across lipid bilayer to alter elctrical signaling?

No. Must move through lipid bilayer via channel proteins

11

What are the two types of ion channels?

P(ore) loop channels - highly SELECTIVE cation channels. Tetrameric structure. Selectivity filter (can tell difference between Na and K ion). smaller pore

Cys-loop receptors - BROADly selective cation or ion channels - pentameric structure. Fixed rings of charge lining channel. bigger pore

12

Why are there multiple ion binding sites within a channel?

To increase permeation and selectivity. Think about it...one ion by itself is TOO stable and will just hang around,..having multiple ions in the channel will somewhat destabilize themselves to move faster

13

What is attached to ions that makes them unable to pass through membrane by themselves?

water of hydration

14

Negative charge rings in the CYS LOOP receptors in channels allow what to pass through?

Cations


positive charge rings do the opposite

15

Nernst potential for Na and K?

Na +60 mV
K -95mV

16

How does Na/K ATPase work?

ATP bond energy used NaK ATPase pumps ions against concentration gradients

3 Na out of cell, 2 K in...burns lots of ATP

17

At rest, which channels have the highest conductance?

K channels.
Then Cl channels, then Na channels

18

Steady state potential = equilibrium potential?

NO. steady state is a weighted average of all the ion lines depending on conductance