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Flashcards in Foreign Policy Deck (88)
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1

_____ consists of the strategies and goals that guide a nation’s relations with other countries and groups in the world

Foreign policy

2

The specific strategies that make up _____ from year to year change in response to changes in the international environment.

U.S. foreign policy

3

The long-term goals of that ____ remain constant, reflecting both the nation’s ideals and its self-interest

policy

4

The principal goal of American foreign policy is _____.

to preserve the security of the United States

5

_____ means protection of a nation’s borders and territories against invasion or control by foreign powers

National security

6

In today’s global economy national security means ________.

more than military defense

7

Maintaining trade with other nations and preserving access to necessary natural resources have also been basic goals of ______.

U.S. foreign policy

8

Productive American factories and farms need foreign markets in which _____.

to sell their goods

9

Generally, the United States supports trade that is free from _______.

both export and import restrictions

10

American leaders also work for _____ because they believe it helps the nation avoid outside conflicts and aids national security

world peace

11

The United States tries to help other nations settle disputes and has also supplied ______.

economic aid to at-risk countries

12

_______, along with direct terrorist attacks, have made the goal of world peace an even greater challenge

The rise of terrorist groups

13

The United States aids democratic nations and helps others create democratic political systems
(examples)

IE. South Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan

14

The United States has responded by providing food, medical supplies, and technical assistance for _____.

humanitarian reasons

15

This aid serves the strategic interests of the United states by ______ in the world

maintaining political stability

16

Until the late 1800's, American foreign policy was based on _____.

isolationism

17

____ the avoidance of involvement in world affairs

Isolationism

18

When______ became president in 1789, the US was a small nation in deep debt

George Washington

19

In 1823 President James Monroe announced a new foreign policy known as the _____.

Monroe Doctrine

20

_____ began to look for world markets for its products and for new sources of raw materials

Monroe Doctrine

21

For some government leaders, isolationism no longer fit the US’s role as an ______.

economic power

22

The US leaders of the time believed the nation needed to expand and acquire a ______.

colonial empire

23

In 1898 the US fought the _______.

Spanish American War

24

As a result, the US acquired the ________, ______, and _____.

Philippine Islands, Guam, and Puerto Rico

25

______ was now a major power in the Caribbean as well as the Pacific region and East Asia

The United States

26

When _____ began in Europe in 1914, isolationist sentiment in the United States was still strong

World War I

27

Disillusioned by the terrible cost of war, Americans returned to _______.

isolationism

28

When _____ began in 1939, the United States officially remained ____.

World War II, neutral

29

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, however, drew the _____ into war

United States

30

Since World War II, US foreign policy has been based on ______.

internationalism

31

_____ emerged from World War II as the leader of the free nations of the world.

The United States

32

US government leaders viewed the ______ as a threat to national security

power of the Soviet Union

33

Between 1945 and 1949, the _____ established control over the governments of Eastern European countries

Soviet Union

34

In 1949 _____ seized control of China.

Chinese Communists

35

_____ takeovers in these nations convinced American leaders that they must halt Communist aggression

The Communist

36

_____ was a war of words and ideologies rather than a shooting war

The Cold War

37

With the threat of expanding communism, the US drew upon the ideas of _____, an American diplomat and expert on Soviet history and culture

George F. Kenan

38

The US would create a policy known as _____.

containment

39

Containment was the policy designed to keep the _____ from expanding its powers

Soviet Union

40

_____ also tried to stop the spread of communism by giving economic aid to nations they said were threatened by totalitarian regimes.

America

41

_____ announced what later became known as the Truman Doctrine in a speech in 1947:

President Harry Truman

42

Months later the_____ provided badly needed economic aid for war-torn Europe

Marshall Plan

43

____ tensions and fears also led to an arms race

Cold War

44

______ of containment drew the United States into two wars: (name them)

The Cold War policy,
1. Korea
2. Vietnam

45

In the Korean War the US aided pro-American South Korea when it was invaded by _______.

communist North Korea

46

Truman saw the invasion of South Korea as expansionism by the Soviet Union and sent American troops there under _____.

UN sponsorship

47

In the Vietnam War, ____ committed troops for many years to fight on the side of the South Vietnamese government against Communist N. Vietnam

the United States

48

In 1989 _____ dividing Communist East Germany from the democratic West Germany was torn down by demonstrators

the Berlin Wal

49

while _____ called on the US to stay involved in world politics to protect American trade interests, encourage democracy, and advance human rights

policymakers

50

In 1990 Iraq’s leader _____, invaded neighboring Kuwait threatening Middle Eastern oil supplies

Saddam Hussein

51

These actions included a program of inspections aimed at preventing ____ from developing weapons of mass destruction

Iraq

52

During the 1990's ____ kept tension high by failing to cooperate with UN-mandated inspections

Saddam Hussein

53

Throughout the 1990s ____ sent US forces to several places in attempts to maintain political order and protect humanitarian interests

President Clinton

54

In 1992_____ join a multi-nation force in Somalia to protect relief organizations operating during a civil war

American troops

55

In 1994 American troops preserved order in _____ when their president was forced to flee the country

Haiti

56

In 1995 _____ intervened to end ethnic warfare among Croats, Serbs, and Muslims resulting from the breakup of the former Yugoslavia

American and NATO allies

57

In 1999, ____ air power and troops forced Serbian troops to withdraw from the Yugoslavian province of Kosovo

American and NATO

58

______ identified the attack as the work of al-Qaeda, a global network of Islamic terrorists whose leaders were based in Afghanistan

The FBI and intelligence sources

59

_____ quickly announced that a war on terrorism would become the focus of his administration

President George W. Bush

60

_______ framework states that preemption should replace containment and deterrence as the foundation American strategy

The Bush administrations

61

_____ means that the US will strike first with military force against any terrorist groups or rogue states that might threaten the nation with weapons of mass destruction

Preemption

62

_____ applied preemption in March 2003 when the US and a coalition of others removed the government of Saddam Hussein

President Bush

63

In December 2003, _____ would be captured

Saddam Hussein

64

______ have the major responsibility for making foreign policy, and are often influenced by the opinions of the American people

The president and Congress

65

Pressure from interest groups can also affect _____.

foreign policy

66

_____ issues can have a substantial impact on legislation that affects their areas of interest

Human rights

67

_______, is one of the smallest cabinet-level departments in terms of employees, yet they carry out foreign policy

The Department of State

68

______ is the largest of all the executive departments both in terms of money spent and people employed

The Department of Defense

69

Created by Congress in 1789, ______ was the first executive department

the Dept. of State

70

Originally it was known as ___________.

the Department of Foreign Affairs

71

______ is generally considered to be the most important member of the cabinet, ranking just below the president and vice president

The secretary of state

72

________ is the 4th in line for presidential succession

The secretary of state

73

Your current secretary of state is ______.

John Kerry (D)

74

Dept. of State carries out four important functions:
(name them)

1. Keep the president informed about international issues
2. Maintain diplomatic relations with foreign governments
3. Negotiate treaties with foreign governments
4. Protect the interests of Americans who are traveling or conducting business abroad

75

Six assistant secretaries direct the six geographical bureaus of the State Dept.: (name a few)

1. Bureau of African Affairs
2. European and Eurasian Affairs
3. East Asian and Pacific Affairs
4. Western Hemisphere Affairs
5. Near Eastern Affairs
6. South Asian Affairs

76

Officials who are assigned to serve abroad in foreign countries belong to ________.

the Foreign Service

77

_______usually spend several years abroad in a diplomatic post

Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)

78

_____ are normally assigned either to an American embassy or to an American consulate

FSOs

79

________ maintains embassies in the capital cities of foreign countries

The United States

80

______ includes the official residence and offices of the ambassador and his/her staff

An embassy

81

The primary function of an embassy is to make ______.

diplomatic communication between governments easier

82

Currently the State Dept. directs the work of over _______.

200 American embassies and consulates

83

An ambassador heads each ________.

American embassy

84

______ is appointed by the president and must be confirmed by the Senate

An ambassador

85

Congress has exercised its power to declare war only ____ times in our nation’s history: (name some)

5,
1. War of 1812,
2. 1846 against Mexico,
3. 1898 against Spain,
4. 1917 against Germany,
5. 1941 against Japan, Germany, and Italy

86

The president has advantages over Congress in conducting foreign policy: (name two)

1. Only the president—or a chosen spokesperson such as the secretary of state—can speak for the nation in dealings with other governments
2. The president controls those agencies, Dept. of State and the National Security Council, that help formulate and carry out foreign policy on a day-to-day basis
3. The president is able to take quick and decisive action
4. By using executive agreements, the president can bypass the Senate when making agreements with other nations

87

Dept. of State carries out four important functions: (name two)

1. Keep the president informed about international issues
2. Maintain diplomatic relations with foreign governments
3. Negotiate treaties with foreign governments
4. Protect the interests of Americans who are traveling or conducting business abroad

88

The Joint Chiefs of Staff is a six member group: (name three)

1. Chief of Staff of the Army,
2. Air Force,
3. Naval Operations,
4.Commandant of the Marine Corps,
5. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
6. Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff