Crude oil is formed from what?
The buried remains of
Define a 'mixture'
Consisting of 2 (or more) elements or compounds that are not chemicaly bonded together
What is crude oil mostly a mixture of?
Basically, what are hydrocarbons?
Fuels such as petrol and diesel
What 2 elements are hydrocarbons made of?
There are ____ ____ ____ between the different parts of the mixture, so the different hydrocarbon molecules in the crude oil are ____ ____ ____ to each other.
There are no chemical bonds between the different parts of the mixture, so the different hydrocarbon molecules in the crude oil are not chemically bonded to each other.
What does the fact that the hydrocarbons within crude oil are not chemically bonded to one another mean?
That they will keep their original properties e.g. their condensing points
The properties of a mixture are just ____ ____ of the ____ of the ____ ____ .
The properties of a mixture are just a mixture of the properties of the separate parts.
How can parts of a mixture be separated out?
By physical methods
How is crude oil separated out?
By fractional distillation
What is the name of the groups that the hydrocarbon molecules in crude oil separate into during fractional distillation?
What does each fraction contain?
Molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms to each other
Where does fractional distillation take place?
In a fractioning column
Explain how fractional distillation works
The fracitoning column works continuously, with heated crude oil piped in at the bottom.
The vapourised oil rises up the column and the various fractions are constantly tapped off at the different levels where they condense.
The ____ molecules rise to the top of the fractioning column, while the ____ ones condense futher down.
This is because the ____ the hydrocarbons are then the ____ their boiling point, and the top of the fractioning column is ____ than the bottom.
The shorter molecules rise to the top of the fractioning column, while the longer ones condense futher down.
This is because the shorter the hydrocarbons are then the lower their boiling point , and the top of the fractioning column is cooler than the bottom.