Why do crude oil fractions make good fuels?
Because most of them burn cleanly
Name 3 uses of crude oil fractions
1. Modern transport e.g. cars, trains, boats, planes
2. Central heating systems in homes
3. Power stations to generate electricity
What is there as a result of the usefulness of crude oil?
A massive industry with scientists working to find oil reserves, taking the oil out of the ground, and turn it into useful products
As well as fuels, what does crude oil provide?
The raw materials for making various chemicals
Name one of the chemicals crude oil provides the raw materials for
Often, ____ to using crude oil fractions as fuel are possible
Often, alternatives to using crude oil fractions as fuel are possible
Give 4 examples of alternatives to using crude oil fractions as fuels
1. Electricity can be generated by nuclear or wind power
2. There are ethanol-powered cars
3. Solar energy can be used to heat water
Name to advantages of using crude oil fractions as fuels over alternatives
1. Things tend to be set up for using oil fractions
2. Crude oil fraction are often more reliable
Give an example of things being set up for using crude oil fractions
Cars are designed to use petrol or diesel, and they're both readily available
Explain how things are set up to make using petrol or diesel in cars easy
There are filling stations up and down the country, with storage facilities and pumps specifically designed for these crude oil fractions
As a result of things being set up to use crude oil fractions, what are they often?
The easiest and cheapest thing to use
Give an example of alternatives to crude oil being less reliable
Solar and wind power won't work without the right weather conditions
What is the problem with using nuclear power as an alternative to crude oil?
There are lots of concerns about its safety and the storage of radioactive waste
What kind of a fuel is crude oil?
What is a 'non-renewable fuel'?
A fuel that is being used up faster than it can be replaced
No one knows exactly when oil reserves will run out, but there have been many ____ ____ by scientists e.g. the year ____
No one knows exactly when oil reserves will run out, but there have been many different predictions by scientists e.g. the year 2000
When did scientists believe crude oil would run out by the year 2000?
About 40 years ago
How are we not running out of crude oil as quickly as you might expect?
1. New oil reserves are discovered from time to time
2. Technology is constantly improving
How is the constant improvement of technology increasing the time before we run out of crude oil?
New technology means that it's now possible to extract oil that was too difficult or expensive to extract before
What is the worst-case scenario for running out of crude oil?
25 years in the future
Because of the imminence of running out of crude oil, what do some people believe we should do?
Immediately stop using oil for things like transport, for which there are alternatives, and keep it for things that oil is essential for, like some chemicals and medicines
What are 2 problems with not using oil for unessential things immediately
1. It will take time to develop alternative fuels that will satisfy our energy needs
2. It will take time to adapt things so that the fuels can be used on a wider scale
Give 2 examples of how we would have to adapt to use alternative fuels
1. Special kinds of car engine
2. Special storage containers
What is a group of alternative power sources to crude oil?
What is a 'renewable source'
A source that can be replaced as quickly as it is used
Give 3 examples of renewable energy sources
1. Solar power
2. Wind power
3. Tidal power
So however long oil does last for, it's a good idea to start ____ it and ____ ____ now.
So however long oil does last for, it's a good idea to start conserving it and finding alternatives now.
Name 3 environmental problems with crude oil
1. Oil spills harm wildlife
2. Global warming
3. Global dimming
4. Acid rain
When can oil spills happen?
When oil is being transported by tanker
How are oil spills disastrous for the local environment?
1. Birds get covered in it and poisoned when they try to clean themselves
2. Other creatures - like whales and otters - are poisoned too
Why do we combust oil?
To release the energy from it
Crude oil is...
... REALLY important to our lives