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Regulatory Physiology and Pharmacology > Fuel Use > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fuel Use Deck (25):
1

What are the physiological actions of insulin?

increase glucose uptake by cells
increase glycogenesis
decrease glycogenolysis
decrease gluconeogenesis

2

What is GSK3?

Phosphorylates glycogen synthase inactivating it, so phosphorylate it to allow glycogen synthesis

3

What are FOXO genes?

genes which allow gluconeogensis
phosphorylation takes them out of the nucleus

4

What does p70S6 do?

stimulate protein synthesis

5

What is the action of insulin on the hepatocyte?

stimulates glycolysis
stimulates glycogen synthase
stimulates fatty acid synthesis
inhibits futile cycling
suppresses gluconeogenesis

6

What enzymes are involved in preventing futile cycling?

PFK2
FBPase-2

7

What does FBPas-2 do?

inhibits the conversion of F1,6,BP to F-6P

8

WHat does PFK2 do?

stimulate conversion of F-6P to F1,6BP

9

How are PFK2 and FBPase activated by insulin?

insulin promotes their dephosphorylation

10

What are the enzymes involved in the conversion of Acetyl coA to Fatty acids?

acetyl co A carboxylase
fatty acid synthase

11

What is the action of glucagon?

increases glycogenolysis
increases gluconeogenesis
suppresses glycolysis

12

What is the signalling pathway of glucagon?

Gas -> AC -> increase cAMP and PKA

13

How does glucagon suppress futile cycling?

allosterically by phosphorylation

14

What are the other counter-regulatory responses?

epinephrine, GH, cortisol

15

At what point do patients experience symptoms of hypoglycaemia?

less than 3mmol/l

16

At what point do patients experience symptoms of hypoglycaemia?

less than 3mmol/l

17

What are the main features of diabetes?

hyperglycaemia
glucosuria
EC glucose high with IC glucose low

18

What are the criteria for diabetes?

FPG >7.0mmol/l
OGTT >11.1mmol/l after 75glucose load
IGT = FPG 7.8 but

19

What is HbA1c?

gives an average of blood glucose from past three months but can be affected by several factors, including anemia, pregnancy and uraemia

20

What is the diabetes diagnosis for Hb1AC?

>6.5%
pre-diabetes 5.7-6.4%

21

What is the definition of T1DM?

pancreatic b-cell destruction
characterised by the presence of anti-GAD or anti-islet antibodies

22

What is the definition of T2DM?

diagnosis of exclusion

23

What other types of diabetes are there?

MODY
Secondary causes

24

When does T1DM start and how quickly?

childhood/adolescence
very fast
no dyslipidemia

25

What are the different forms of MODY?

transcription factors - deteriorate - most common
glucokinase - stable - 20%
MODY X - no clue