Male and Female Reproductive Physiology Flashcards Preview

Regulatory Physiology and Pharmacology > Male and Female Reproductive Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male and Female Reproductive Physiology Deck (64):
1

What are the ducts that all embryos have?

Wolffian ducts
Mullerian ducts

2

Which ducts develop in males?

Wolffian

3

Which ducts develop in females?

Mullerian ducts

4

What prevents the Mullerian ducts developing in females?

testosterone and Mullerian Inhibiting factor

5

What is testosterone stimulated by in physiological development?

hCG from the placenta

6

What is testosterone converted to after week 6?

DHT

7

What does DHT stimulate in males?

the genital tubercle to become the glans penis with urethral opening
The urethral folds to close
The Genital swellings to develop into the scrotum and shaft of the penis

8

What happens to the female genitalia?

Genital tubercle becomes clitoris
urethral fold remains open
Genital swelling becomes labia

9

What are the glands associated with the penis?

Prostate, bulburethral, seminal vesicle

10

What are the two functions of the testes?

producing sperm and secreting testosterone

11

What is 80% of the testicular mass?

seminiferous tubules

12

Where do Leydig cells appear?

in connective tissue between seminiferous vesicles

13

What is Cryptorchidism?

When the testes have not descended in adulthood

14

Why is it important for the testes to descend?

Lower temp outside the body to facilitate spermatogenesis
nerve reflexes trigger muscle movement in the scrotal sac to lower/raise testes according to external temp

15

What are the 5 types of effects of testosterone?

before birth
on sex-specific tissues
other reproductive events
secondary sex characteristics
non-reproductive events

16

What is the effect of testosterone before birth?

masculinises the reproductive tract and external genitalia
promotes descent of testes into scrotum

17

What is the effect of testosterone before birth?

masculinises the reproductive tract and external genitalia
promotes descent of testes into scrotum

18

What is the effect of testosterone on sex-specific tissues?

promotes growth and maturation of repro system
causes testes to enlarge and start spermatogenesis
maintains repro tract through life

19

What are the other reproductive effects of testosterone?

develops libido
controls GnRH

20

what are the effects of testosterone on secondary sex characteristics?

enlarges larynx and thickens vocal cords
induces male pattern hair growth
thickens skin
causes male body shape

21

What are the effects of testosterone on non reproductive events?

promotes protein and bone growth
closes epiphyseal plates
induces oil secretion - acne
aggressive behaviour

22

What are the two types of cell involved with spermatogenesis?

germ cells
sertoli cells

23

how long does sperm differentiation take?

64 days

24

What are spermatogonia differentiated into and how?

mitotic proliferation to primary spermacytes

25

How are primary spematocytes converted to secondary spermatocytes?

1st meiotic division
23 double stranded chromosomes

26

What happens to the secondary spematocytes at the second meiotic division?

become 2 single stranded spermatids

27

What stages is testosterone required for?

mitosis and meiosis

28

What is spermiogenesis?

the packaging of spermatids to spermatozoa and removal of unnecessary cellular components and rebuilding into specialise motile sperm

29

What is required for spermiogenesis?

FSH

30

what does acrosome contain?

enzymes for penetration of the ovum

31

What are the roles of the sertoli cells?

form a blood-testes barrier
provide nutrients
phagocytosis
secrete seminiferous tubule fluid
secrete androgen binding protein
secrete inhibin
secrete Mullerian inhibiting factor in fetus

32

What hormones control the testes?

LH
FSH

33

What hormones control the testes?

LH
FSH

34

What does the seminal vesicle secrete?

fructose
prostaglandins for motility

35

What does the prostate gland secrete?

alkaline fluid to neutralise vaginal acid secretions
clotting of semes to keep sperm in vagina during penis withdrawl

36

What does the bulbourethral gland secrete?

mucus for lubrication

37

What are the essential reproductive functions of the female tract?

production of ova
reception of sperm
transport of sperm and ova to site of fertilisation
gestation
partuition
nourishment of infant through lactation

38

What is different about oogenesis?

has the same meiotic and mitotic divisions but is suspended at birth until puberty

39

What stages of oogenesis have occured before birth?

mitotic
arrested at first meiotic division

40

What happens at puberty?

primary oocyte reaches maturity and completes first meiotic division before ovulation

41

What does fertilisation trigger?

second meiotic division to create 3 polar bodies

42

What are the two phases of the ovarian cycle?

follicular phase
luteal phase

43

What happens during the follicular phase?

maturation of the egg, ready for ovulation at mid cycle

44

What happens during the luteal phase?

development of corpus luteum
induces preparation of reproductive tract for pregnancy

45

What does the corpus luteum do?

secretes progesteron and oestrogen to prepare the uterine lining

46

How long does the corpus luteum survive if no fertilisation occurs?

8-9 days growth degrades after 14 days

47

What does the degeneration of the corpus luteum signal?

start of a new follicular phase

48

What is the function of estrogen during most of the ovarian cycle?

inhibits LH and FSH release

49

When does estrogen stimulate a spike in LH?

around days 12-14

50

What does the spike in LH cause?

ovulation

51

When does progesterone start to increase?

after ovulation

52

When does estrogen peak?

12-14 daysa

53

When is the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?

5-15 days

54

What phase follows the proliferative phase?

the secretory phase days 15-28

55

What phase follows the proliferative phase?

the secretory phase days 15-28

56

When does the anterior pituitary start to increase the amount of FSH and LH secreted?

a few days before menstruation

57

What does the surge in LH do other than trigger ovulation?

stimulates development of follicle cells into corpus luteum

58

What causes the menstruation?

the lack of progesterone

59

what does the decrease in estrogen and progesterone do?

reduce negative feedback on the anterior pituitary

60

What is adrenarche?

growth spurt and pubic hair growth

61

What is thelarce?

breast development starts

62

what is menarche?

onset of menstrual cycle

63

What is the menopause?

oestrogen withdrawl when FSH levels rise but oestrogen, progesterone and inhibin fall
causes cessation of ovulation and menstruation

64

What are some of the long term side effects of menopause?

hot flushes
vaginal and uterine atrophy
decreased breast size
long term susceptibility to osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease