What are the two phases of movement seen in dogs?
Stance and swing phase
When is the stance phase occurring?
When the foot is in contact with the ground (weight bearing)
When is the swing phase occurring?
The time the limb is propelled through the air (non-weight bearing)
What does the thoracic limb want to do when bearing weight?
Shoulder joint wants to flex Elbow joint wants to flex Carpus wants to hyperextend Metacarpophalangeal joint wants to hyperextend
What are first class levers?
RFE: fulcrum is between the effort and resistance
What are second class levers?
FRE: fulcrum on one end, effort on opposite end and resistance in between
What are third class levers?
REF: fulcrum on one end, resistance on opposite and effort between them
When will you see “knuckling over” of the carpus on a dog?
When the animal is having trouble extending the carpus The extensors of the carpus are affected
What is seen when there is rigid extension of the elbow?
Overstimulation of the triceps brachii, can be caused from localized tetanus The forelimb will be contracting and sticking straight back
What muscles are involved in the swing phase when: the limb is advanced, shoulder and carpus are extended, elbow is in full stretch.
Brachiocephalicus Omotransversarius Trapezius Rhomboideus Serratus ventralis Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Extensor carpi radialis Common digital extensor Lateral digital extensor
What muscles are involved in the swing phase when; the limb is pulled caudally, shoulder and carpus are flexed, elbow is flexed.
Deep pectoral Latissimus dorsi Deltoideus Teres major Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Flexor carpi radialis Ulnaris lateralis SDF DDF
What muscles are involved in the stance phase?
Stabilize the limb to the body: serratus ventralis, superficial and deep digital flexor, trapezius and rhomboideus
Stabilize the shoulder: Surpraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres minor, teres major, coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii
Extensors of the elbow: tensor fasciae antebrachii, triceps brachii, anconeus
Flex the carpus and digits: Ulnaris lateralis, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, SDF and DDF