What are the 5 classifications of bones?
- Long bones
- Short bones
- Flat bones
- Irregular bones
- Sesamoid bones
What is the long stretch of bone called?
What is the part of bone that’s located near the extremities?
What is the region between the diaphysis and epiphysis?
Where do most infections, fractures, metastasis and effects of endocrine bone disorders occur?
Metaphysis, growth plate region
What is an example of genetic bone disorders that cause a stunt in growth of the long bones?
What is the outer layer of bone called that contains a rich blood supply and contains osteoprogenitor cells?
What is the inner lining surface of bones?
What bones have equal dimensions and only one center of ossification?
ex: carpal bones and sesamoid bones
What type of bone would be present when extensive protection or large muscle attachment is necessary?
ex: scapula and skull bones
What kind of bone is short with many processes?
What are the three functions of sesamoid bones?
- eliminates tendon shear
- increases torque
- redirects line of force
What are the two types of blood supply for long bones?
Nutritional vessels and periosteal blood vessels
What does a nutritional vessel pass through?
What do the periosteal blood vessels supply?
The outer, cortical bone
What is the epimysium?
The outer most connective tissue that holds the muscle belly
Functions to keep muscles together
What is the perimysium?
Divides muscles into smaller units-muscle fasciles
Extends from the epimysium into the muscle
What is the endomysium?
Envelopes individual muscle fibers
Extends from the perimysium
What is a synovial bursae?
fluid filled bag positioned between a tendon and bony process
**gives one sided protection of muscle tendons
What is a synovial sheath?
Synovial fluid filled sacs surrounding muscle tendons
**seen when a greater part of the tendon is vulnerable
Immovable joints are classified as being ______?
Semimovable joints are classified as being _______?
Free moving joings are classified as being ______?
What are the three structural classifications of joints?
Describe a fibrous joint.
Strong fibrous connective tissue (dense irregular) between articulating bones (little to no movement)
What are three example of fibrous joints?
Suture: seams of bones of skull
Gomphosis: peg & socket attachment (seen in the teeth)
Syndesmosis: bones joined by interosseus ligaments
(Ex: radius, ulna, tibia, and fibula)
Describe a cartilaginous joint.
Cartilage between articulating bones
What are the two classifications of cartilaginous joints?
Synchondrosis: hyaline cartilage union, stronger and less mobile (ex: metaphysial growth plates)
Symphysis: occurs in the midline of the body, bend and flex but don’t rotate on axis (ex: pelvic symphysis, intervertebral discs)
Describe a synovial joint.
Joint cavity between articulating bones lined with synovial membrane, they have free movement (diarthrotic)
What are the accessory structures of the synovial joint?
Meniscus, ligaments and fat pads