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Flashcards in functional foods/nutraceuticals Deck (34):
1

Who said "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food"?

Hippocrates, 400 BC

2

what is a functional food?

has bioactive comps such as phytochem in addition to basic nutrition, for additional health benefit/disease prevention

3

example of bioactive compounds?

beta glucans in oats/barley, omega3 in flax/fish oils

4

what is a product isolated/purified from foods, generally sold in medicinal form?

nutraceutical

5

how are functional foods diff from nutraceuticals?

functional similar to conventional food, nutraceuticals are isolated from foods and sold in dosage form

6

how is milk a functional food?

conjugated linoleic acid, sphingomyelin/ceramide, butyric acid, calcium, bioactive peptides, oligosacc, lactoferrin

7

categories of functional foods?

natural, processed, enriched, traditionally bred, genetically engineered

8

most important structural feature of bioactive carbs?

resistance to digestion in upper tract of GI (go to colon microflora)

9

What is glycemic index?

scale that ranks carb-rich foods by how much they raise blood sugar lvl compared to standard food

10

examples of prebiotics?

inulin, fructooligosaccharides

11

where are prebiotics found in?

onion, garlic, ruits and veg, wheat, chicory (white carrot) roots

12

examples of bioactive lipids?

SCFAs (short chain f.a.), long chain omega 3 (DHA/EPA), CLA

13

physiologically relevant SFCAs are mainly:

acetate, propionate, butyrate

14

benefits of SFCA?

anti-inflammatory, prevent colon cancer, decrease luminal pH

15

benefits of CLA?

improve body comp., decrease risk cancers

16

how are bioactive peptides activated?

released by enzymatic/chem hydrolysis so that free peptides become physiologically active (not active in native form)

17

where are polyphenolic comps found?

virtually all types of food plants

18

what are 6 subclasses of flavonoids?

flavones, flavonones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanols anthocyanins

19

name of secondary products of plant metabolism

flavonoids

20

compounds structurally related to flavonoids that serve as precursors for flav. biosynth.

phenolic acids (like ferulic acid)

21

where to find anthocyanin?

in purple/red/orange vegetables

22

type of flavanol found in tea and cocoa

catechins

23

found in grapes and wine

resveratrol

24

where are ferulic acids found?

seeds of coffee, apple, components of plant cell wall

25

saturated sterols are called:

stanols

26

benefits of plant sterols?

structurally similar to chol, so compete with cholesterol for absorption in intestine, so lower cholesterol

27

mot common carotenoid in human body that is most potent carotenoid antioxidant

lycopene

28

lycopene reduces risk of ___

prostate cancer

29

why is there higher bioavailability of lycopene in tomato paste than in fresh?

breaking down sturdy cell walls makes lycopene more bioaccessible

30

examples of probiotics?

lactobacillus, bifidobacterium

31

what is FFNHP?

Functional Foods and Natural Health Products

32

this is produced by plant as immune response to bacteria/fungi; it is anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood sugar lowering

resveratrol

33

about ____g resveratrol required to significantly lower blood sugar

3-5 (only 1/1000 of this amount in red wine...)

34

how to judge validity of functional food claim?

what [ ] needed? Sold functionally active? health benefits ubiquitous? comp bioavailable? do I get enough in diet? how much is too much?