Flashcards in functional foods/nutraceuticals Deck (34)
Who said "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food"?
Hippocrates, 400 BC
what is a functional food?
has bioactive comps such as phytochem in addition to basic nutrition, for additional health benefit/disease prevention
example of bioactive compounds?
beta glucans in oats/barley, omega3 in flax/fish oils
what is a product isolated/purified from foods, generally sold in medicinal form?
how are functional foods diff from nutraceuticals?
functional similar to conventional food, nutraceuticals are isolated from foods and sold in dosage form
how is milk a functional food?
conjugated linoleic acid, sphingomyelin/ceramide, butyric acid, calcium, bioactive peptides, oligosacc, lactoferrin
categories of functional foods?
natural, processed, enriched, traditionally bred, genetically engineered
most important structural feature of bioactive carbs?
resistance to digestion in upper tract of GI (go to colon microflora)
What is glycemic index?
scale that ranks carb-rich foods by how much they raise blood sugar lvl compared to standard food
examples of prebiotics?
where are prebiotics found in?
onion, garlic, ruits and veg, wheat, chicory (white carrot) roots
examples of bioactive lipids?
SCFAs (short chain f.a.), long chain omega 3 (DHA/EPA), CLA
physiologically relevant SFCAs are mainly:
acetate, propionate, butyrate
benefits of SFCA?
anti-inflammatory, prevent colon cancer, decrease luminal pH
benefits of CLA?
improve body comp., decrease risk cancers
how are bioactive peptides activated?
released by enzymatic/chem hydrolysis so that free peptides become physiologically active (not active in native form)
where are polyphenolic comps found?
virtually all types of food plants
what are 6 subclasses of flavonoids?
flavones, flavonones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanols anthocyanins
name of secondary products of plant metabolism
compounds structurally related to flavonoids that serve as precursors for flav. biosynth.
phenolic acids (like ferulic acid)
where to find anthocyanin?
in purple/red/orange vegetables
type of flavanol found in tea and cocoa
found in grapes and wine
where are ferulic acids found?
seeds of coffee, apple, components of plant cell wall
saturated sterols are called:
benefits of plant sterols?
structurally similar to chol, so compete with cholesterol for absorption in intestine, so lower cholesterol
mot common carotenoid in human body that is most potent carotenoid antioxidant
lycopene reduces risk of ___
why is there higher bioavailability of lycopene in tomato paste than in fresh?
breaking down sturdy cell walls makes lycopene more bioaccessible