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Flashcards in functional foods/nutraceuticals Deck (34)
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1
Q
Who said "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food"?
A
Hippocrates, 400 BC
2
Q
what is a functional food?
A
has bioactive comps such as phytochem in addition to basic nutrition, for additional health benefit/disease prevention
3
Q
example of bioactive compounds?
A
beta glucans in oats/barley, omega3 in flax/fish oils
4
Q
what is a product isolated/purified from foods, generally sold in medicinal form?
A
nutraceutical
5
Q
how are functional foods diff from nutraceuticals?
A
functional similar to conventional food, nutraceuticals are isolated from foods and sold in dosage form
6
Q
how is milk a functional food?
A
conjugated linoleic acid, sphingomyelin/ceramide, butyric acid, calcium, bioactive peptides, oligosacc, lactoferrin
7
Q
categories of functional foods?
A
natural, processed, enriched, traditionally bred, genetically engineered
8
Q
most important structural feature of bioactive carbs?
A
resistance to digestion in upper tract of GI (go to colon microflora)
9
Q
What is glycemic index?
A
scale that ranks carb-rich foods by how much they raise blood sugar lvl compared to standard food
10
Q
examples of prebiotics?
A
inulin, fructooligosaccharides
11
Q
where are prebiotics found in?
A
onion, garlic, ruits and veg, wheat, chicory (white carrot) roots
12
Q
examples of bioactive lipids?
A
SCFAs (short chain f.a.), long chain omega 3 (DHA/EPA), CLA
13
Q
physiologically relevant SFCAs are mainly:
A
acetate, propionate, butyrate
14
Q
benefits of SFCA?
A
anti-inflammatory, prevent colon cancer, decrease luminal pH
15
Q
benefits of CLA?
A
improve body comp., decrease risk cancers
16
Q
how are bioactive peptides activated?
A
released by enzymatic/chem hydrolysis so that free peptides become physiologically active (not active in native form)
17
Q
where are polyphenolic comps found?
A
virtually all types of food plants
18
Q
what are 6 subclasses of flavonoids?
A
flavones, flavonones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanols anthocyanins
19
Q
name of secondary products of plant metabolism
A
flavonoids
20
Q
compounds structurally related to flavonoids that serve as precursors for flav. biosynth.
A
phenolic acids (like ferulic acid)
21
Q
where to find anthocyanin?
A
in purple/red/orange vegetables
22
Q
type of flavanol found in tea and cocoa
A
catechins
23
Q
found in grapes and wine
A
resveratrol
24
Q
where are ferulic acids found?
A
seeds of coffee, apple, components of plant cell wall
25
Q
saturated sterols are called:
A
stanols
26
Q
benefits of plant sterols?
A
structurally similar to chol, so compete with cholesterol for absorption in intestine, so lower cholesterol
27
Q
mot common carotenoid in human body that is most potent carotenoid antioxidant
A
lycopene
28
Q
lycopene reduces risk of ___
A
prostate cancer
29
Q
why is there higher bioavailability of lycopene in tomato paste than in fresh?
A
breaking down sturdy cell walls makes lycopene more bioaccessible
30
Q
examples of probiotics?
A
lactobacillus, bifidobacterium
31
Q
what is FFNHP?
A
Functional Foods and Natural Health Products
32
Q
this is produced by plant as immune response to bacteria/fungi; it is anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood sugar lowering
A
resveratrol
33
Q
about ____g resveratrol required to significantly lower blood sugar
A
3-5 (only 1/1000 of this amount in red wine...)
34
Q
how to judge validity of functional food claim?
A
what [ ] needed? Sold functionally active? health benefits ubiquitous? comp bioavailable? do I get enough in diet? how much is too much?