Flashcards in Functionalist Theories Deck (19)
Why did Durkheim think crime happens?
Crime happens as not everyone is equally socialised into society's norms and values so some deviate
Society is a mix of subcultures so something seen as a crime to one may not be a crime to others
What two positive functions does crime fufill according to Durkheim?
Adaptation and Change
How does crime provide boundary maintance according to Durkheim?
Crime produces a negative reaction from society which unites it's members and reinforces society's values
How does crime provide adaptation and change according to Durkheim?
Norms and values need to be challenged through deviance in order for society to move forward
Which sociologists develop Durkheim's ideas further?
How does Davis develop Durkheim's ideas further?
He says that prostitution is a safety valve to release men's sexual frustrations without threatening marriage
How does Polsky develop Durkheim's ideas further?
Porn channels desires away from adultery which would be a threat to the family
How does Cohen develop Durkheim's ideas further?
Crime acts as a warning to tell us when institutions are not functioning properly
How does Erikson develop Durkheim's ideas further?
Agencies of social control aim to keep a medium level of crime, not eradicate it completely
What are the criticizms of Durkheim?
We don't know how much crime is the right ammount
Shows it's function but not why it excists
Not all crime promotes social solidarity
Which functionalists commented?
Why does Merton think crime occurs?
People are unable to acheive socially approved goals through legitimate means due to society's unequal opportunity structure so turn to crime
What are the 5 adaptations to the strain between goals and means?
What is conformity according to Merton?
The most common response where people accept the goals and try to acheive them through legitimate means
What is innovation according to Merton?
When people accept the goals but use illigitimate means, normally in the lower class
What is rebellion according to Merton?
Where people reject the goals and replace them with new ones
What is retreatism according to Merton?
Where people reject the goals and means of acheiving them, often being drop-outs and homeless
What is ritualism according to Merton?
Where people accept the goals but give up on acheiving them but still use legitimate techniques