Functionalist Theories Flashcards Preview

A Level Sociology: Crime and Deviance (AQA) > Functionalist Theories > Flashcards

Flashcards in Functionalist Theories Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

Why did Durkheim think crime happens?

Crime happens as not everyone is equally socialised into society's norms and values so some deviate
Society is a mix of subcultures so something seen as a crime to one may not be a crime to others

2

What two positive functions does crime fufill according to Durkheim?

Boundary Maintance
Adaptation and Change

3

How does crime provide boundary maintance according to Durkheim?

Crime produces a negative reaction from society which unites it's members and reinforces society's values

4

How does crime provide adaptation and change according to Durkheim?

Norms and values need to be challenged through deviance in order for society to move forward

5

Which sociologists develop Durkheim's ideas further?

Davis
Polsky
Cohen
Erikson

6

How does Davis develop Durkheim's ideas further?

He says that prostitution is a safety valve to release men's sexual frustrations without threatening marriage

7

How does Polsky develop Durkheim's ideas further?

Porn channels desires away from adultery which would be a threat to the family

8

How does Cohen develop Durkheim's ideas further?

Crime acts as a warning to tell us when institutions are not functioning properly

9

How does Erikson develop Durkheim's ideas further?

Agencies of social control aim to keep a medium level of crime, not eradicate it completely

10

What are the criticizms of Durkheim?

We don't know how much crime is the right ammount
Shows it's function but not why it excists
Not all crime promotes social solidarity

11

Which functionalists commented?

Durkheim
Merton

12

Why does Merton think crime occurs?

People are unable to acheive socially approved goals through legitimate means due to society's unequal opportunity structure so turn to crime

13

What are the 5 adaptations to the strain between goals and means?

Conformity
Innovation
Rebellion
Ritualism
Retreatism

14

What is conformity according to Merton?

The most common response where people accept the goals and try to acheive them through legitimate means

15

What is innovation according to Merton?

When people accept the goals but use illigitimate means, normally in the lower class

16

What is rebellion according to Merton?

Where people reject the goals and replace them with new ones

17

What is retreatism according to Merton?

Where people reject the goals and means of acheiving them, often being drop-outs and homeless

18

What is ritualism according to Merton?

Where people accept the goals but give up on acheiving them but still use legitimate techniques

19

What are the critisizms of Merton?

White collar crime isn't explained
Not all crime is for self-gain