Fundamentals, water, acids, bases and buffers Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fundamentals, water, acids, bases and buffers Deck (56)
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1

Enzyme deficiency in alkaptonuria

Homogentisate oxidase

2

Enzyme deficiency in homocystinuria

Cystathionine synthase

3

Enzyme deficiency in MSUD

Branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase

4

Enzyme deficiency in PKU

Phenylalanine hydroxylase

5

Hydroxylation

Introduces an -OH group

6

Decarboxylation

removes a carboxyl group and release CO2

7

IN oxidation reactions electrons are ____
IN reduction reactions electrons are ____

Lost
Gained

8

___% of our body wieght is water

50%

9

Unique properties of water

Great nucleophile
Great buffer
Hydrogen bonds
Great solvent

10

pH =

- log [H+]

11

Hormones that monitor blood volume and osmolality

ADH and aldosterone

12

Buffers consist of:

Undissosciated acid and its conjugate base

13

A buffer has its greatest buffering cpacity at:

or near its pKa (+/- 1)

14

pKa =

- log Ka

15

Two factors that determine the effectiveness of a buffer

its pKa relative to the pH of a solution

and

its concentration

16

Norma pH range for blood

7.35 - 7.45

17

Blood pH is maintained by:

H2CO3/HCO3- buffer system

18

Ka is:

acid dissociation constant, larger Ka, stronger acid

19

pKa is:

- log Ka
smaller pKa, stronger acid

20

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation:

pH = pKa + log [A-]/[HA]

21

Normal metabolism generates:

CO2, lactic acids and ketones, and inorganic acids

22

How does the body void of acid?

Expiration of CO2
Excretion of ammonium (NH4+)

23

Respiratory acidosis caused by:

Hypoventilation > leads to an increase in CO2 > increase H+ > decreased pH

24

Metabolic acidosis caused by:

Addition of a strong acid and loss of HCO3- (via diarrhea and/or abnormal kidney function)

25

Buffer system equation (dont forget enzyme):

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3- + H+

Via carbonic anhydrase

26

Respiratory alkalosis is caused by:

Hyperventillation > leads to decrease in CO2 > leads to loss of H+ > increased pH

27

Metabolic alkalosis caused by:

Addition of a strong base and loss of acid (via vomiting)

28

Gibbs free energy:

∆G = ∆H -T∆S

29

-∆H vs +∆H

-∆H is favorable and leads to a lower energy state, heat flow out of the system

+∆H is unfavorable and leads to higher energy state, heat flow into a system

30

-∆S vs +∆S

-∆S more favorable as ti leads to increase in entropy

+∆S less favorable as it leads to a decrease in entropy