Structure of carbohydrates and introduction to metabolism Flashcards Preview

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1

"keto" or "aldo" in carbohydrate nomenclature

Ketose- Ketone on its most oxidized end

Aldose- Aldehyde on its most oxidized end

2

single monomer in a carbohydrate

Monosaccharide

3

double monomers in a carbohydrate

Disaccharide

4

3-10 monomers in a carbohydrate

Oligosaccharide

5

greater than 10 monomers in a carbohydrate

Polysaccharide

6

Linkages between carbohydrate sugars

Glycosidic bond (covalent linkage)

7

Chair conformation is the most _____ conformation regarding _____

Stable
Hexose rings

8

Axial vs equatorial

Axial- stick straight down
Equatorial- project outward form the ring (most stable position for larger groups)

9

Three key monosaccharides: common names and their nomenclature

Glucose (aldohexose), fructose (ketohexose), galactose (aldoheose)

10

Sugar that is crucial to nicleic acid synthesis, common name and nomenclature

Ribose (aldopentose)

11

In human metabolism, most sugars exist as which form of optical isomer?

D form

12

Maltose

Glucose + glucose
α-linkage

13

Lactose

Galactose + glucose
β-linkage

14

Sucrose

Glucose + fructose
α-, β-linkage

15

Scurvy is caused by

Prolonged Vitamin C deficiency

16

Sugar acids

Monosaccharide derivate
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) - required for collagen synthesis
glucuronic acid - reacts with bilirubin in the liver, forming conjugated bilirubin, also major component of GAGs which make up extracellular envt

17

Deoxy sugars

Monosaccharide derivate
ie, Deoxyribose

18

Sugar alcohols

Monosaccharide derivate

Glycerol - derived from hydrolysis of triacylglycerol, makes glycerol phosohate
Sorbitol - excess results in damage to the lens
Galactitol - contributes to cataract formation

19

Amino sugars

Monosaccharide derivate

Replacement of hydroxyl group with an amino group

20

Sugar esters

Monosaccharide derivate

Glycosidic linkage with sulfate or phosphate

21

Glycosylation

Monosaccharide derivate

Sugar aldehyde with amino group in an irreversible bond

22

Fructose intolerance

Leads to hypoglycemia

23

Hereditary galactosemia

failure to metabolize galactose leads to cataracts

24

Glycoproteins

Oligosaccharide + protein

25

Glycolipids

Oligosaccharide + lipid

26

Proteoglycan

glycosaminoglycan + protein

27

Exapmles of polysaccharide

Glycogen
Starch
Cellulose

(polymers of glucose)

28

Linkages in glycogen:

α-1,4 with branches formed by α-1,6

29

Enzyme that releases glucose subunits in glycogen

Gycogen phophorylase

30

Starch is metabolized by which human enzyme

Amylase