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CALU - Kinesiology > Gait Quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gait Quiz Deck (93):
1

What is gait?

Manner of walking

2

What is the gait cycle?

Cyclic pattern of engagement of muscles and joints when walking

3

When does a mature gait pattern appear?

Age 7

4

When does gait cycle start and end?

Start: one heel strikes the ground
Ends: same heel strikes ground

5

What is stride?

one cycle of the gait cycle (a left step and a right step)

6

When does step begin and end?

Begin: When heel of other foot strikes ground
Ends: When its own heel strikes the ground

7

When does stance phase begin and end?

Begin: at heel-strike
Ends: at toe-off

8

When does swing phase begin and end?

Begin: at toe-off
Ends: at heel-strike

9

What is step length?

Length between 2 consecutive heel strikes (length of a step)

10

Average step length of an adult?

28 inches (72 cm)

11

What is step width?

Width between the centers of 2 consecutive heel strikes

12

Average step width of an adult?

3 inches (7-9 cm)

13

What is step angulation?

Angle created between the direction in which one is moving and the long axis of the foot

14

What is a normal step angulation?

~7-10 deg

15

What is the normal pace of walking?

~100 steps/min (2.5 mph [4 kph])

16

Each foot strikes the ground how many times per day?

2000-10,000

17

Each foot strikes the ground how many times per day?

2000-10,000

18

Stance phase (5)

1. Heel-strike
2. Foot-flat
3. Midstance
4. Heel-off
5. Toe-off

19

Why do you want the foot to be open-packed (pronation/eversion) in the early stages of stance?

So it can adapt to the uneven surface of the ground; pronation allows arches to collapse

20

Why do you want the foot to be close-packed (supination/inversion) in the late stages of stance?

Foot must be stiff and stable to propel the body forward; supination holds the arches high and creates a more rigid foot

21

What gives the foot the ability to change from being supple (pronate) to rigid (supination)

Laxity/tautness of plantar fascia (windlass mechanism)

22

What is the windlass mechanism?

Creates the ability of plantar fascia to become lax or taut; when extension occurs at MTP joints, fascia is pulled taut around these joints and tension is transferred to the arches, causing them to rise

23

What is the windlass mechanism?

Creates the ability of plantar fascia to become lax or taut; when extension occurs at MTP joints, fascia is pulled taut around these joints and tension is transferred to the arches, causing them to rise

24

Heel-strike is the landmark that begins _____ and ends ____

begins stance phase
ends swing phase

25

What is foot-flat?

When entire plantar surface is in contact with ground

26

What is midstance?

When weight of body is directly over lower extremity (greater trochanter above middle of foot)

27

What is midstance?

When weight of body is directly over lower extremity (greater trochanter above middle of foot)

28

Toe-off is the landmark that ends _____ and begins _____

ends stance phase
begins swing phase

29

Swing phase begins with ____ and ends with ____

begins with toe-off
ends with heel-strike

30

Swing phase (3)

1. Early swing
2. Mid-swing
3. Late swing

31

Stance phase and swing phase make up how much of the gait cycle (%)

Stance: 60%
Swing: 40%

32

What is double-limb support?

When both feet are in contact with the ground

33

What is double-limb support?

When both feet are in contact with the ground

34

What distinguishes walking from running?

The presence of double-limb support

35

Lower extremity contractions during gait cycle (3)

1. Concentric contraction to create motion
2. Eccentric contraction to decelerate momentum
3. Isometric contraction to stabilize & prevent motion

36

During the early to middle stages of the stance phase, muscles are primarily ____ contracting

eccentrically

37

During the middle to late stages of the stance phase, muscles are primarily ____ contracting

concentrically

38

During the middle to late stages of the stance phase, muscles are primarily ____ contracting

concentrically

39

How does electromyography determine when a muscle is contracting?

Depolarization of the muscle's membrane (contraction) generates electricity

40

What are the 2 roles of the hip flexors?

1. Contract concentrically to create forward swing
2. Contract eccentrically to decelerate hip extension before toe-off

41

Why does the hip flexor only need to concentrically contract during 1st half of swing phase?

2nd half is completed by momentum (ballistic motion)

42

What are major hip joint flexors?

Iliopsoas, sartorius, rectus femoris

43

What are major hip joint flexors?

Iliopsoas, sartorius, rectus femoris

44

What are the 2 roles of the hip extensors?

1. Contract eccentrically to decelerate forward-swinging limb in late swing
2. Contract isometrically with force on heel-strike to stabilize pelvis from anterior tilt

45

What are major hip extensors?

hamstrings, glute max

46

What are major hip extensors?

hamstrings, glute max

47

Are hip joint abductors more important with regard to action on the pelvis or the thigh?

Pelvis

48

Major function of hip abductors?

Create force of depression on same-side pelvis during stance phase, especially heel-strike to midstance

49

Why is it important for the abductors to place a depression force on the pelvis during stance?

So the swing side doesn't depress and fall toward the

50

Why is it important for the abductors to place a depression force on the pelvis during stance?

Stop pelvis from depressing to the swing-limb side

51

Major hip abductors?

Glute medius, minimus

Also TFL, sartorius, and upper glutes

52

Depression of the pelvis at the hip joint is the reverse of

abduction of thigh at the hip joint

53

What kind of contraction are the abductors performing

Slightly eccentric

54

What kind of contraction are the abductors performing

Slightly eccentric because pelvis is permitted to drop slightly toward the swing side

55

What kind of contraction are the abductors performing

Slightly eccentric because pelvis is permitted to drop slightly toward the swing side

56

2 roles of hip adductors?

1. Contract at heel-strike - aids extensors' stabilization of hip as foot hits the ground
2. Contract just after toe-off - aids flexion of thigh

57

Adductors can ____ the thigh when it is _____ and vice versa

Extend the thigh when it is flexed

58

Major adductors

adductor longus, brevis, and magnus; pectineus; gracilis

59

Major adductors

adductor longus, brevis, and magnus; pectineus; gracilis

60

When are lateral rotators primarily active?

During stance phase - control the medial rotators' action on the pelvis (controls ipsilateral rotation of the pelvis of the medial rotator muscles)

Prevent excessive medial rotation of the thigh at the hip

61

When are lateral rotators primarily active?

During stance phase - control the medial rotators' action on the pelvis (controls ipsilateral rotation of the pelvis of the medial rotator muscles)

Prevent excessive medial rotation of the thigh at the hip

62

What can cause excessive medial rotation of the thigh during stance?

Excessive pronation at the subtalar joint (calcaneus fixed and talus medially rotates and carries leg/thigh with it)

63

What can cause excessive medial rotation of the thigh during stance?

Excessive pronation at the subtalar joint (calcaneus fixed and talus medially rotates and carries leg/thigh with it)

64

What reverse action is important during planting and cutting in sports?

Contralateral rotation of the pelvis at the hip joint by the lateral rotators.

65

Lateral rotation of the thigh at the hip joint is the reverse action of

contralateral rotation of the pelvis at the hip joint

66

Major hip joint lateral rotators

Glute max, posterior med/min, deep lateral rotators of thigh (piriformis, gemelli, obturator internus, externus, quadratus femoris)

67

Major hip joint lateral rotators

Glute max, posterior med/min, deep lateral rotators of thigh (piriformis, gemelli, obturator internus, externus, quadratus femoris)

68

2 roles of knee extensors?

1. Contract concentrically at end of swing to extend at knee and reach out with leg in prep for heel strike
2. Eccentrically contract and decelerate knee flexion early stance and then concentric to create extension near midstance

69

Major knee extensors

Quad femoris

70

Major knee extensors

Quad femoris

71

3 roles of knee flexors

1. Contract eccentrically to declerate extension just before heel-strike
2. Contract just after heel-strike to stabilize knee in early stance
3. Contract during swing to keep foot from dragging on the ground

72

Major knee flexors?

hamstrings, gastroc

73

Major knee flexors?

hamstrings, gastroc

74

2 roles of ankle dorsiflexors?

1. Eccentric to decelerate plantarflexion during early stance - allows foot to be lowered to ground in controlled manner

75

2 roles of ankle dorsiflexors?

1. Eccentric to decelerate plantarflexion during early stance - allows foot to be lowered to ground in controlled manner
2. Concentric during swing phase to keep toes off the ground

76

Foot slap

When foot not brought to the ground in a controlled and graceful manner.

77

Foot slap

When foot not brought to the ground in a controlled and graceful manner.

Caused by nerve compression of deep fibular nerve that innervates anterior leg

78

Major ankle dorsiflexors

Tibialis anterior, EDL, EHL, fib tertius

79

Major ankle dorsiflexors

Tibialis anterior, EDL, EHL, fib tertius

80

2 roles of ankle plantarflexors

1. Eccentric in stance to decelerate dorsiflexion
2. Concentric at toe-off

81

What would happen without plantarflexion force as leg moves anteriorly toward foot?

Leg would collapse at ankle

82

Major ankle plantarflexors

Gastrocnemius, soleus

83

2 roles of subtalar supinators

1. Eccentric from heel-strike to foot flat to decelerate pronation
2. Concentric from foot-flat to toe-off

84

Pronation from heel-strike to foot flat is a passive/active process

Passive - caused by body weight moving over teh arch of the foot

85

Major subtalar supinators

tibialis posterior, tibialis anterior, FDL, FHL, intrinsics

86

Major subtalar supinators

tibialis posterior, tibialis anterior, FDL, FHL, intrinsics

87

Person with excessively pronated foot will often overwork the___

foot supinators - trying to countery tendency to overly pronate when weight bearing

88

Result of excessive pronation?

pain in supinator muscles, especially TP and TA (shin splints)

89

Excessive pronation is a collapse of which arch?

medial longitudinal

90

Intrinsic foot muscles support the arches and also

supinators to prevent excessive pronation

91

Why do the intrinsic muscles of the foot weaken with shoes?

Need to contract and supinate to prevent pronation is lost; can exacerbate excessive pronation

92

When are subtalar pronators active?

Later stance phase from foot flat to toe off; co-contract with supinators to help stabilize the foot and make it more rigid

93

Major subtalar pronators?

Fib longus and brevis