Module 2 Quiz Flashcards Preview

CALU - Kinesiology > Module 2 Quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 2 Quiz Deck (181):
1

What are the 3 major structural classifications of a joint?

1. Fibrous
2. Cartilaginous
3. Synovial

2

Joints ______ movement

allow

3

Muscles _________ movement

create

4

Ligament/joint capsules _______ movement

limit

5

How is "muscles create movement" too simplistic?

Muscles create a force on the bones of a joint. It can create movement or stop/modify a movement.

6

What is the closed-packed position?

Position at which joint is most stable; usually result of max congruency and max ligament tightness

7

What is a congruent joint?

Articular surfaces of bones best fit each other

8

What is the open-packed position?

Any position of joint where combo of poor congruency and lax ligaments results in greater mobility and poorer stability

9

The more mobile a joint is, the less _____ it is (and vice versa)

stable

10

What 3 factors determine the balance of mobility and stability of a joint?

1. Shape of bones
2. Ligament/joint capsule complex
3. Musculature of the joint (big ms = less mob)

11

What are the weight-bearing joints?

Almost all lower extremity joints and spinal joints

12

What is a fibrous joint?

Joint in which bones are held together by dense fibrous connective tissue

13

What is a cartilaginous joint?

Joint in which bones are held together by either fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage

14

What is a synovial joint?

Joint in which bones are connected by a joint capsule, which is composed of 2 distinct layers (an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial layer)

15

Which joints do not have a joint cavity?

Fibrous and cartilaginous

16

The articular ends of bones in a joint cavity are lined with what?

Hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage)

17

What is a synarthrotic joint?

Allows little to no movement

18

What is an amphiarthrotic joint?

Allows moderate amount of movement

19

What is a diarthrotic joint?

Allows a lot of movement

20

What are the 3 sub-types of synarthroses?

Synostoses (bony)
Syndesmoses (fibrous)
Synchondroses (cartilaginous)

21

What are the 3 sub-types of fibrous joints?

Syndesmosis
Suture
Gomphosis

22

What is a syndesmosis joint?

United by fibrous ligament or aponeurosis

23

What is a suture joint?

United by thin layer of fibrous material

24

What is a gomphosis joint?

Peg-in-hole shaped bones united by fibrous material

25

What type of joint is the interosseous membrane of the forearm?

Fibrous syndesmosis

26

What is synostosis?

Joint that has fused over with bone (ex: cranial suture joints)

27

What is the only gomphosis joint?

Teeth and mandible (movement only allowed early in life)

28

What kind of cartilage is in a cartilaginous joint?

Fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage

29

2 sub-types of cartilaginous joints

Symphysis
Synchondrosis

30

What is a symphysis joint?

Fibrocartilage in form of disc unites bodies of 2 bones

31

What type of joint is intervertebral disc joint or pubic symphysis?

Carilaginous symphysis

32

What is a synchondrosis joint?

Hyaline cartilage unites 2 bones

33

What type of joint is the costal cartilage between a rib and sternum?

Cartilaginous synchondrosis

34

What type of joints are wrist, elbow, shoulder, ankle, knee, hip?

Synovial

35

What secretes synovial fluid into a joint cavity?

Inner synovial membrane layer

36

What is a ligament?

Fibrous structure that attaches from bone to bone

37

What is ligament primarily made of?

Collagen fibers

38

Why is it called "ligamentous/joint capsule complex"?

Some ligaments evolved independent of fibrous capsule; other ligaments never fully separated and are considered thickenings of the fibrous capsule

39

Are ligaments extra- or intra-articular (outside or inside the joint capsule)?

Mostly outside

40

What is a muscle?

Soft tissue specialized to contract

41

What kind of tendon is the long head of the biceps at the shoulder joint? (intra or extra-articular?)

intra-articular

42

What is a uniaxial joint?

Allows motion around 1 axis in 1 plane

43

What is a biaxial joint?

Allows motion around 2 axes in 2 planes

44

What is a triaxial joint? (polyaxial)

Allows motion around 3 axes in 3 planes

45

What is a nonaxial joint?

Allows motion within a plane, but only gliding

46

What are 2 sub-types of uniaxial synovial joint?

Hinge
Pivot

47

What is a hinge joint?

Surface of one bone is spool-like and other bone is concave

48

Example of hinge joint

Elbow, ankle

49

What is a pivot joint?

One surface shaped like a ring, other surface shaped to rotate within ring

50

Example of pivot joint

Atlantoaxial (atlas [C1] and odontoid process [dens, C2]), proximal radio-ulnar (radial notch of ulna and annular ligament)

51

2 sub-types of biaxial joint?

Condyloid (ovoid, ellipsoid)
Saddle (sellar)

52

What is a condyloid joint?

One bone concave, other convex

53

Example of condyloid joint?

MCP joint, radiocarpal joint

54

What is a saddle joint?

Modified condyloid joint; both bones has convexity and concavity to surface; convexity of one fits into concavity of other and vice versa

55

Example of saddle joint?

CMC (carpometacarpal), sternoclavicular

56

Which actions can condyloid joints perform?

Flexion/Extension (sagittal)
Adduction/Abduction (frontal)

57

What plane does flexion/extension occur in the thumb? Adduction/Abduction?

F/E occurs in frontal, Ad/Ab in sagittal (due to orientation of thumb)

58

If the saddle joint of the thumb moves in all three cardinal planes, why is it a biaxial joint?

Only allows motion around 2 axes

59

What is the only major type of triaxial synovial joint?

Ball-and-socket joint

60

What kind of joints are intercarpal joints (between carpal bones) or facet joints?

Nonaxial synovial joints

61

What are menisci and articular discs? What are their function?

Additional intra-articular fibrocartilage that maximizes congruency of a joint - this maintains normal joint movements and cushion the joint.

62

What is an articular disc?

Ring-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that increases joint congruency

63

What is a meniscus?

Crescent shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that increases joint congruency

64

Where would you find an articular disc?

TMJ, SCJ

65

Where would you find articular menisci?

Between tibia and femur

66

How many moveable elements of the spine?

26

67

How many bones in the coccyx?

4

68

What is a scoliosis?

Any spinal curve that exists from a posterior view of the spine

69

What is a left lumbar scoliosis?

Curve in lumbar spine convex to the left

70

What are the primary spinal curves?

Formed before birth (thoracic and sacrococcygeal)

71

What are the secondary spinal curves?

Formed after birth (lumbar and cervical)

72

What does kyphotic mean?

Concave anteriorly, convex posteriorly

73

What does lordotic mean?

Convex anteriorly, concave posteriorly

74

What creates cervical lordosis?

Baby lifting head to look around

75

What creates lumbar lordosis?

Baby extending the back to sit up

76

An adult curved spine is attained at approximately what age?

10

77

What are the 4 functions of the spine?

1. Structural support for body
2. Allow for movement
3. Protect the spinal cord
4. Shock absorption

78

At what joint does the head move relative to the neck?

Atlanto-occipital joint

79

At what joint does the pelvis move relative to the trunk?

Lumbosacral joint

80

What are the 2 ways the spine provides shock absorption from compression forces?

1. Nucleus pulposus absorbs force in disc
2. Curves of spine bend and increase slightly

81

A spinal joint such as C5-C6 is also referred to as a ___?

segmental level of the spine

82

What is the medial joint in a spinal segment?

Intervertebral disc joint

83

What are the 2 lateral joints in a spinal segment?

R/L facet joints

84

What is different about the medial spinal joint at the AOJ and AAJ?

They are not disc joints

85

What type of joint is the spinal disc joint?

Cartilaginous symphysis (amphiarthrotic)

86

What is a disc joint composed of?

1. Outer annulus fibrosus
2. Inner nucleus pulposus
3. 2 vertebral endplates

87

Discs account for how much of the spine's height?

25%

88

The thicker a spinal disc is...

the greater the shock absorption and movement

89

How much body weight (%) is distributed between disc joint and facet joints?

80% of weight above = disc
20% of weight above = facet

90

What is the implication of a compressed disc joint?

Decreased opening of intervertebral foramina where the spinal nerves travel

91

What are symptoms of a pinched nerve?

Pain, numbness, weakness

92

What is the annulus fibrosus made of?

Fibrocartilage

93

Nucleus pulposus is what % water?

80%

94

Vertebral endplate is made of?

Fibro and hyaline cartilage

95

Importance of basket weave configuration of concentric layers of annulus fibrosus?

Resists and stabilizes disc joint during distraction, shear, and torsion forces

96

How do you keep the nucleus pulposus hydrated?

Thixotropy (movement of the spine)

97

What is a slipped disc?

Injury to the annulus fibrosus which allows nucleus pulposus to bulge or rupture through the fibers; can compress a nerve through bulging or thinning the disc

98

Where are vertebral facet joints located?

Between articular processes of 2 contiguous vertebrae (superior to inferior process)

99

What type of joint are facet joints?

Synovial plane joints (diarthrotic)

100

Orientation of facets in upper cervical spine?

Transverse plane (rotation)

101

Orientation of facets in mid-cervical spine

45 deg transverse/frontal plane (rotation and lateral flexion)

102

Orientation of facets in thoracic spine

Frontal (lateral flexion)

103

Orientation of facets in lumbar spine

Sagittal (flexion/extension)

104

Function of facet joints?

Guides motion in orientation best suited for that specific segment (but can glide in other directions)

105

Ligaments of the spine (9)?

Fibrous capsules of facet joints
Annulus fibrosus of disc joints
Anterior longitudinal ligament
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Ligamenta flava
Interspinous ligaments
Supraspinous ligament
Intertransverse ligaments
Nuchal ligament

106

In what direction does a ligament limit motion?

Direction that is opposite itself (anterior ligament limits posterior motion)

107

What motions are allowed by spinal joints?

Flexion/extension
Lateral flexion
Rotation
Translation (R/L, A/P, Sup/Inf)

108

What is the anterior longitudinal ligament?

Runs along anterior margins of vertebral bodies; limits extension

109

What is the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Runs along posterior margins of vertebrae in spinal canal; limits flexion

110

What are the ligamenta flava?

2 ligaments that run along L/R anterior margins of laminae in the spinal canal; limit flexion

111

What are the interspinous ligaments?

Separate short ligaments between adjacent spinous processes; limit flexion

112

What is the supraspinous ligament?

Runs along posterior margins of spinous processes; limits flexion

113

What are the intertransverse ligaments

Separate short ligaments between adjacent transverse processes; limit contralateral lateral flexion and rotation

114

What ligaments are absent in the neck compared to the spine?

Intertransverse ligaments

115

What is the nuchal ligament?

Runs along and between spinous processes from C7 to external occipital protuberance; thickening of supraspinous ligament; limits flexion and is attachment for muscles

116

Which muscles attach to the nuchal ligament?

Trapezius
Splenius capitis
Rhomboids
Serratus posterior superior
Cervical spinales

117

Muscles that produce spinal extension are where? Fiber direction?

Posterior trunk - vertical direction

118

Muscles that produce spinal flexion are where? Fiber direction?

Anterior trunk - vertical direction

119

Muscles that produce spinal lateral flexion are where? Fiber direction?

Side of body - vertical direction

(almost all flexors and extensors are also ipsilateral lateral flexors)

120

What is the joint between the occiput and C1

Atlanto-occipital (AOJ)

121

What is the joint between C1 and C2?

Atlantoaxial (AAJ)

122

What type of joint is the AOJ?

Synovial condyloid (triaxial diarthrotic)

123

What is the median joint of the AAJ? The two lateral joints?

Median: atlanto-odontoid (posterior surface of anterior arch of atlas and anterior surface of odontoid process [dens] of axis)

Lateral: facet joints

124

What type of joint is the atlanto-odontoid joint?

Pivot joint

125

What type of joint are the lateral facets of the AAJ?

Plane joints

126

Is AAJ uniaxial, biaxial, or triaxial?

biaxial (diarthrotic)

127

When you turn your head from side to side (as in "no), majority of movement occurs at what joint?

AAJ

128

Ligaments of the upper cervical (occipito-atlantoaxial) region (11)

Nuchal ligament
Facet joint fibrous capsules of AOJ
Facet joint fibrous capsules of AAJ
Posterior AO membrane
Tectorial membrane
Accessory atlantoaxial ligament
Cruciate ligament of the dens
Alar ligaments of the dens
Apical odontoid ligament
Anterior longitudinal ligament
Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane

129

What is a continuation of the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine?

Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane (posterior arch of atlas and occiput)

130

What is a continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine?

Tectorial membrane

131

What attaches the dens of the axis to the atlas and occiput?

Cruciate ligament of the dens (transverse, superior, and inferior bands)

132

What is the name of C7

Vertebral prominens

133

What kind of spinous/transverse processes does the cervical spine have?

Bifid

134

What is the uncinate process?

Superior surfaces of cervical vertebral bodies curve upward laterally

135

What is an uncovertebral joint?

Where lateral sides of 2 contiguous cervical vertebrae meet each other - add some stability

136

If the neck performs a lateral flexion, what other movement also occurs?

Ipsilateral rotation (due to facet joints in oblique plane)

137

Explain thorax vs abdomen

Thorax = thoracic spine region
Abdomen = lumbar spine region

138

On each rib, what are the 2 costospinal articulations with the spine?

Costovertebral joint
Costotransverse joint

139

What is the costovertebral joint?

Where the rib meets the bodies/discs of the spine

140

What is the costotransverse joint?

Where the rib meets the transverse process of the spine

141

What kind of joints are costovertebral and costotransverse?

Nonaxial synovial

142

Which ribs articulate with the sternum and therefore have sternocostal joints?

#1-10

143

Why is the thoracic spine injured less often?

It is more stable (moves less) than cervical/lumbar spines

144

Why is proper movement of the rib joints extremely important?

For respiration

145

The head of the rib forms the costovertebral joint how?

Attaches to the inferior costal hemifacet of the superior vertebra, and superior costal hemifacet of the inferior vertebra

146

Which ligament stabilizes the costovertebral joint?

Radiate ligament

147

What is different between rib 1 and ribs 2-10?

Rib 1 meets a full costal facet at superior end of body of T1 vertebra

148

Where does costovertebral joints form for ribs 11 and 12?

11 and 12 meet a full facet at the superior body of T11 and T12, respectively

149

Why don't ribs 11 and 12 have costotransverse joints?

They do not articulate with transverse processes of thoracic spine

150

What are the muscles of respiration?

Any muscles that have the ability to change the volume of the thoracic cavity - includes abdominal muscles

151

Primary muscle of inspiration?

Diaphragm (elevates lower 6 ribs)

152

What muscles are working during relaxed breathing?

Just the diaphragm

153

Which ribs are true? false? floating?

True: #1-7
False: #8-10
Floating: #11-12

154

What kind of joints are sternocostal?

Cartilaginous synchondrosis (amphiarthrotic, gliding)

155

What are the 3 joints of the sternocostal joint?

Costochondral joint (rib and cartilage)
Chondrosternal joint (cartilage and sternum)
Interchondral joint (between cartilage of ribs 5-10)

156

What are the 2 intrasternal joints?

Manubriosternal joint
Sternoxiphoid joint

157

What is the common term for hyperlordosis?

Swayback

158

The lumbar spine moves freely in all directions except...

rotation

159

Why does the lumbosacral joint region not allow sagittal plane motions (flexion/extension)?

Because the facets have changed from sagittal to frontal orientation

160

Why is the low back injured so often?

It needs a lot of stability for weight bearing, but it also allows for a lot of mobility

161

When the lumbar spine performs lateral flexion, what motion is also produced?

Contralateral rotation

162

What are the large sheets of fibrous tissue located in the trunk? Where are they located? Function?

Thoracolumbar fascia (posterior trunk) and abdominal aponeurosis (anterior trunk)

Functions: attachment sites for muscles; add stability

163

How many layers of thoracolumbar fascia?

1. anterior
2. middle
3. deep

164

Spine Range of Motion

F: 135
E: 120
LF: 90
R: 120

165

Flexion/Extension occurs in what plane? around what axis?

Sagittal plane
Mediolateral axis

166

Lateral flexion occurs in what plane? around what axis?

Frontal plane
Anteroposterior axis

167

Rotation occurs in what plane? around what axis?

Transverse plane
Vertical axis

168

Major muscles of spinal joints (general)?

Extensors
Flexors
Lateral flexors
Rotators

169

AOJ ROM?

F: 5
E: 10
LF: 5
R: 5

170

AAJ ROM?

F: 5
E: 10
LF: N/A
R: 40

171

Muscles of atlanto-axial region?

Suboccipital
Rectus capitis anterior
Recuts capitis lateralis

172

ROM of C2-3 to C7-T1

F: 40
E: 60
LF: 40
R: 40

173

ROM of C1-2 to C7-T1

F: 45
E: 70
LF: 40
R: 85

174

Thoracic spine ROM

F: 45
E: 25
LF: 25
R: 35

175

3 sub-types of rib joints

Costospinal
Sternocostal
Intersternal

176

3 sub-types of sternocostal joints

Costochondral
Chondrosternal
Interchondral (manubriosternal, sternoxyphoid)

177

Abdominal breathing is primarily what body part?

Diaphragm

178

Thoracic breathing is primarily what body part?

Lower Ribs

179

What does the sacral base angle determine?

Curve of the spine

180

Lumbar spine ROM?

F: 50
E: 15
LF: 20
R: 5

181

Thoracolumbar spine ROM?

F: 85
E: 40
LF: 45
R: 35