Module 4 Quiz Flashcards Preview

CALU - Kinesiology > Module 4 Quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 4 Quiz Deck (136):
1

What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?

Cardiac
Smooth
Skeletal

2

Function of muscle?

Contract and create a pulling force

3

What are the 2 types of tissue found in skeletal muscle?

Skeletal muscle tissue
Fibrous fascial connective tissue

4

What are the major structural and major functional units of a muscle?

Muscle cells (make up majority of muscle and they do the contracting)

5

What is the function of fascial connective tissue?

Structural framework for muscle and becomes tendon.

Transfers force of muscle contraction to bone

6

Why are there nerves in skeletal muscle?

Carry motor messages from CNS to muscle
Carry sensory messages from muscle to CNS

7

Why are there blood vessels in skeletal muscle?

Bring needed nutrients to the muscle tissue and drain away waste products of muscle metabolism

8

What are muscle fibers?

Muscle cells

9

Length of muscle fibers (cells)?

0.5 inch to 20 inches

10

What is the classic appearance of muscle cells?

Striated

11

What is a fascicle?

Bundles of muscle fibers (up to 200)

12

What is muscular fascia made of?

Mostly collagen, some elastin

13

What is the fibrous fascia that surrounds each individual muscle fiber?

Endomysium

14

What is the fibrous fascia that surrounds a group of muscle fibers, dividing the muscle into fascicles?

Perimysium

15

What is the fibrous fascia that surrounds an entire muscle?

Epimysium

16

What is lateral force transmission?

Force of contraction of fiber A will transfer to fiber B even though it was not stimulated to contract.

Occurs through connections of endo-, peri-, and epimysia

17

What is a tendon?

Muscular fascia that attaches the muscle to a bone or soft tissue (round and cord-like)

18

What is an aponeurosis?

Muscular fascia that attaches the muscle to bone or soft tissue (broad and flat)

19

Because tendons and aponeuroses are an integral part of the muscle, muscles are referred to as...

myofascial units

20

What is intermuscular septa?

Thick muscular fascia that separates muscles of the body and provide a site of attachment for adjacent muscles

21

What are aponeurotic sheets?

Muscular fascia that expands over large groups of muscles

22

Where are the nerves and blood vessels located in skeletal muscle?

Within muscular fascia

23

What are the cellular microstructures in muscle cells?

Cytoplasmic organelles

24

Why are muscle cells multinucleate?

Muscle fibers developed from multiple stem cells grouping together

25

Why are muscles rich in mitochondria?

Mitocondria create adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules aerobically

26

What is myoglobin?

oxygen-binding molecule in muscle similar to hemoglobin but has greater ability to bind oxygen

27

What are myofibrils?

Cytoplasmic organelles that runs the length of the fiber - composed of sarcomeres (that lay side by side)

28

What is a Z-line?

boundary of a sarcomere

29

Each sarcomere contains protein filaments called

Actin
Myosin

30

Where are the actin and myosin filaments within the sarcomere?

Actin filaments are attached to the Z-lines at both ends

Myosin filaments are located in the center of the sarcomere

31

What causes muscle striation?

Overlapping of actin and myosin filaments

32

What is the functional unit of skeletal muscle?

Sarcomere (performs the contraction)

33

What is the physiologic process of a sarcomere celled?

Sliding filament mechanism (also called ratchet theory)

34

Where does the energy that drives the sliding filament mechanism come from?

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules

35

What are the 2 steps of the sliding filament mechanism that require ATP?

1. Energy for myosin-actin cross-bridges to break

2. Reuptake of calcium into sarcoplasmic reticulum when contraction done

36

What are the 4 steps in which ATP molecules are supplied

1. Stored ATP
2. Regeneration of ATP from stored creatine phosphate
3. Regeneration of ATP from anaerobic breakdown of glucose
4. Regeneration of ATP from aerobic breakdown of glucose

37

Breakdown of glucose first occurs aerobically or anaerobically?

Anaerobically

38

Where does anaerobic breakdown of glucose occur?

Within the sarcoplasm of muscle cell

39

Where does aerobic breakdown of glucose occur?

Within mitochondria

40

How does aerobic breakdown of glucose exercise the heart?

Requires oxygen which requires increased circulation which increases demand on heart

41

How does the lack of ATP account for rigor mortis?

ATP required to break myosin-actin cross-bridges.

1. Muscles in state of contraction at death
2. Calcium leaks into sarcoplasmic reticulum and triggers cross-bridges (continues until tissue breaks down)

42

How is ATP expenditure related to trigger points?

Trigger points squeeze blood vessels, diminish blood flow, and decrease delivery of glucose to muscle cells --> deficiency of ATP production

Decreased ability to break cross-bridges and reuptake calcium

43

What is the energy crisis hypothesis?

ATP deficiency leading to formation and persistence of trigger points

44

What is glycolysis?

Anaerobic breakdown of glucose

45

For each molecule of glucose broken down by glycolysis, what is formed?

2 ATP molecules
Lactic acid (waste)

46

What is the Kreb's cycle

Aerobic breakdown of glucose

47

For each molecule of glucose broken down by Kreb's cycle, what is formed?

36 ATP
Carbon dioxide
Water

48

What is oxygen's role in aerobic metabolism?

Bonds to the carbon atoms created when glucose molecule is broken down to create CO2 which can be easily carried away in the bloodstream and eliminated via the lungs

49

What is oxygen debt?

When anaerobic metabolism is relied on, lactic acid is a waste product; this is sent to the liver to be turned into glucose

Sending it to the liver requires oxygen - explains why person may continue to breathe deeply after exercise is completed

50

What is muscle innervation?

When peripheral nerve has ability to direct muscle to contract

51

What is the small space between muscle fiber and motor neuron?

Synaptic cleft; synaptic gap; synapse

52

What are neurotransmitters

Molecules released by motor neuron into synapse which transmit neural message for contraction to muscle fiber

53

What is the neurotransmitter released between motor neurons and muscle fibers?

Acetylcholine

54

What happens when neuron no longer secretes acetylcholine?

Neurotransmitter left in synapse is removed by acetylcholinesterase enzyme and muscle relaxes

55

What is the location where the motor neuron and muscle fiber meet?

Neuromuscular junction

56

What is the motor end plate?

Sarcolemma at neuromuscular junction that is specialized to receive and bind to acetylcholine

57

What happens when acetylcholine binds to the motor end plate?

An electrical impulse is initiated and travels along the sarcolemma of the entire muscle fiber and then transmitted into the interior of the fiber via T tubules

58

What are the T tubules?

Transverse tubules which transmit electrical impulse into the fiber from the sarcolemma

59

What happens when electrical impulse reaches the interior of the muscle fiber?

Triggers sliding filament mechanism by releasing stored calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum into sarcoplasm

60

Does the CNS send messages for muscles to relax?

No, it just stops sending the contraction signal

61

When calcium is no longer present in the sarcoplasm, why can't myosin heads bind with actin?

Binding sites are no longer available

62

What is muscle memory?

Memory pattern of muscle contractions which resides in the nervous system

63

What is human resting muscle tone?

Muscle tissue has a low baseline resting muscle tone that is independent of the nervous system (1% of max contractile force of muscle)

64

How does human resting tone occur?

Small but constant presence of calcium ions in sarcoplasm which expose a small number of active sites on actin filaments, allowing cross-bridges

65

Why is human resting tone important?

Postural stability

66

How does human resting tone differ from resting tone?

Resting muscle tone refers to the tone of muscle when it is at rest, which is directed by the nervous system as a result of muscle memory of the gamma motor nervous system

67

What is a motor unit?

One motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls (ie, with which it synapses)

68

Why are motor units often spread throughout the muscle instead of restricted to fascicular organization?

Because skeletal muscle fibers cannot pass the message to contract from one to another

69

Where are small motor units typically and why?

Locations where very fine and precise body movements are needed (like extraocular muscles).

Smaller motor units = less fibers per neuron = smaller, finer, precise action

70

Where are large motor units typically and why?

Locations where large and less precise movement is needed (like gluteus maximus)

Larger motor units = more fibers per neuron = larger, grosser, more powerful action

71

What is the all-or-none-response law of muscle contraction?

When the nervous system sends message to contract, the muscle fiber contracts completely (100%)

If no message sent, fiber relaxes completely (0%)

72

Why does the all-or-none-response law not apply to an entire muscle?

Skeletal muscle can have partial contractions since the muscle is innervated by a number of different motor units - some say contract, some don't

73

Why is partial contraction of a muscle important?

Allows person to generate just the right amount of force for a particular situation

74

What are the 2 main bands of a sarcomere?

A-band and I-band

75

What is the A-band?

dark in color; defined by presence of myosin (center of sarcomere)

There is an area of just myosin (H-band) and an area of both actin and myosin

76

What is the I-band?

light in color; defined by only actin filaments

Partially in one sarcomere and partially in the adjacent sarcomere

77

What is the H-band?

Region of the A-band that contains only myosin.

78

What is the M-band (M-line)?

Center of myosin molecule

79

What is the Z-band (Z-line)

Center of I-band; border between 2 adjacent sarcomeres

80

What is the myosin filament made of?

Myosin head

Myosin tail (light meromyosin component)

81

What is the actin filament made of?

3 proteins:
1. Actin
2. Troponin
3. Tropomyosin

82

What blocks the binding site of actin during rest (prevents connection with myosin head)?

Tropomyosin protein

83

What makes the tropomyosin molecule move out of the way so actin can form a cross-bridge with myosin head?

Calcium ions attach to the troponin molecule which moves the tropomyosin molecules out of the way, which exposes the actin molecule binding site

84

What is the titin (connectin) protein?

Largest protein in human body; found in sarcomeres; forms cytoskeletal framework for sarcomere, connecting the myosin filament to the Z-line

85

How many titin molecules surround the myosin filament?

6 (same as actin)

86

How long is the titin molecule?

Half the length of the sarcomere; connects myosin filament at M-line to the Z-line

(titin is in both A-band and I-band regions)

87

What does PEVK stand for?

Amino acids:
- Proline
- Glutamate
- Valine
- Lysine

88

What is the PEVK section?

A portion of the titin molecule located in the I-band region

89

Function of the PEVK section?

Extremely elastic and extensible; responsible for elasticity and passive tension of extended muscle/myofascial tissue

Might also be responsible for chronic muscle stiffness (adhesions between titin and myosin filament or titin and actin filaments)

90

Muscle stiffness is considered to be caused by what 2 factors?

1. Active contraction via sliding filament mechanism
2. Fascial adhesions

91

What direction does the actin filament slide in the sarcomere?

Inward, toward the center of the sarcomere (Z-lines pulled toward M-line)

92

Can a myosin filament slide along the actin filament?

Yes - if actin filaments of 2 adjacent sarcomeres were to both shorten toward their respective centers, their common Z-line would rupture.

93

Muscles shorten in which direction?

Toward their center

94

What are red and white muscle fibers?

Red: slow-twitch fibers
White: fast-twitch fibers

95

Why are red fibers red? Why are they slow-twitch?

Rich blood supply = red

Slow-twitch because they are slow to contract from instant they receive impulse to contract

Rely on slower process of aerobic respiration

96

Why are fast-twitch fibers easily fatigued?

Rely on anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis) which only produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule

97

How long does it take a red and white fiber to reach max tension?

Red: 1/10 of a second
White: 1/20 of a second

Partially due to small red fibers having smaller-diameter motor neurons

98

Small motor units = red or white fibers?

Red

99

Large motor units = red or white fibers?

White

100

Do intermediate fibers convert and attain characteristics of red or white fibers?

both

101

What determines the ratio of red and white fibers in our bodies?

Genetics

102

Red slow-twitch fibers are also called (6):

Type I fibers
Oxidative fibers
Small fibers
Fatigue-resistant fibers
Tonic fibers
Slow oxidative fibers

103

White fast-twitch fibers are also called (6):

Type II fibers
Glycolytic fibers
Large fibers
Easily fatigued fibers
Phasic fibers
Fast glycolytic fibers

104

Deep postural stabilization muscles are often more red or white?

Red - contract slowly and do not create powerful contractions, but can hold for long periods of time

105

Superficial mobility muscles are often more red or white?

White - create fast powerful movements for short amount of time

106

What is myofascial meridian theory?

Muscles operate within continuous lines of fascia that span across the body

107

How many myofascial meridians are there?

11

108

Why is myofascial meridian theory important?

Provides understanding of synergistic patterns of contraction within the body

Explains how forces placed on body at one site can cause somewhat far-reaching effects in distant sites of the body

Tensegrity

109

Based on the meridian theory, would a tight gastrocnemius muscle be felt in the galea aponeurotica of the head?

Only if all the tissues of that particular myofascial meridian are tight (otherwise force absorbed)

110

What is tensegrity?

Relates to structural integrity and support of the body

Proper posture and balancing of the bones are largely caused by the tensile forces created by muscles within myofascial meridians that act on the skeleton

111

How does tensegrity work?

A force applied to a bone at any specific point along the skeleton will be transmitted throughout the body along myofascial meridians, diminishing its effect at the local site of application

112

The structural integirty of the body is dependent on both tensile (myofascial) and ______ forces

compressive (bones stacked on each other)

113

What is a concentric contraction?

When muscle contracts and shortens

114

The muscle that is concentrically contracting is called a...

mover

115

The force necessary to move a body part is usually the force necessary to....

move the weight of the body part (other forces may be involved)

116

Fully describe the joint action of the brachialis muscle pulling the forearm toward the arm.

Flexion of the forearm at the elbow joint.

117

Fully describe the joint action of the brachialis muscle pulling the arm toward the forearm

Flexion of the arm at the elbow joint.

118

If the CNS directs another muscle in the body contract, which may stop or "fix" one of the attachments of the mover muscle, the second muscle that contracts to fix a body part would be called a ...

fixator or stabilizer muscle

119

What is the most common determinant of which muscle attachment moves?

Typically weight of the body parts (ex: forearm more likely to move than arm since its lighter)

Other determinants: stabilizer muscle contraction or fixing one attachment (like holding an immovable bar)

120

What are the 3 questions to ask yourself to figure out a muscle action?

1. What joint does the muscle cross?
2. Where does the muscle cross the joint?
3. How does the muscle cross the joint (fiber orientation)?

121

A muscle with one line of pull in one cardinal plane will have how many actions?

1 (plus reverse)

122

A muscle with one line of pull in an oblique plane will have how many actions?

1 in the oblique plane, but 1+ in cardinal planes

Ex: Coracobrachilis has 1 action in an oblique plane, but also flexes in the sagittal plane and adducts in the frontal plane (2 actions)

123

Can a muscle choose which of its actions will occur?

No, unless there are multiple lines of pull - then the nervous system can send messages to contract only motor units that lie within specific lines of pull

124

If the muscles cross the joint anteriorly, they perform...

flexion (unless knee joint or below)

125

If the muscles cross the joint posteriorly, they perform...

extension (unless knee joint or below)

126

If the body part is axial, then muscles perform _____ to the same side

lateral flexion

127

If the body part is appendicular, then muscles perform _____ to the same side

abduction (lateral side of joint) or adduction (medial side of joint)

128

If the body part is axial, then muscles perform _____ in the transverse plane

right/left rotation

129

If the body part is appendicular, then muscles perform _____ in the transverse plane

medial/lateral rotation

130

Rotator muscles can be anterior or posterior, so trying to see the manner in which it wraps around a bone, try to visualize it from a ______ perspective

superior

(ex: right splenius captius [posterior] and left sternocleidomastoid [anterior] both cause right rotation)

131

What is the off-axis attachment method

Another way to visualize if muscle causes rotation

If muscle attaches to bone on-axis, it has no possible rotation action

If it attaches on the bone off-axis (to either side of the long axis), it can create a rotation action

132

What is the long axis of a bone?

Straight line that runs from center of articular surface of bone at one end to the center of the articular surface of the bone at the other end

Important in determining rotation actions of muscles

133

How can the glute max cause feet to supinate/invert at the subtler tarsal joint if it doesn't cross that joint?

If person's feet are fixed to the ground, lateral rotation force of the glute max transfers down to the ankle

134

How is transferring muscle contraction to a joint a muscle doesn't cross not the same as "going along for the ride"?

Going along for the ride entails the body parts to maintain their relative position to each other; in transferring force, body parts change position even if the muscle doesn't cross that joint.

135

Can a muscle's action change?

Yes, if line of pull changes

Ex: pec major is an adductor, but when arm is abducted to >100 deg, the line of pull changes and it can abduct the arm (this helps when deltoid and supraspinatus become functionally weaker in higher range of abduction)

136

Explain the dual use of the adductor muscle in running

In anatomic position, adductors are flexors (attachment is anterior to hip), but when thigh is flexed more than 60 degrees (attachment is now posterior to hip), it becomes an extensor. Thererfore, the adductors aid in both flexion and extension during running.