Gallbladder Path I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gallbladder Path I Deck (45):
1

sphincter of oddi

muscle at ampulla of vater

2

ampulla of vater

opening - emptying into duodenum

3

hartmanns pouch

pocket for stone location in gallbaldder

4

histo of gallbladder

single layer of smooth muscle

BM - under epithelial cells

tumor transverse BM - to lymphatics

5

aberrant location of gallbladder

deep in liver

6

coele

latin for cavity or space

7

cyst

abnormal lined closed space with fluid

-speudo - unlined

8

caroli disease

polycystic renal disease

9

ectasia

aneurysm in vasculature

10

choledochal cyst

-of common bile duct**

don't remove surgically

most common in clinical

11

choledochocele

dilation at opening to duodenum

12

phyrigian cap

no clinical significance - but important to surgeon

infolding at tip of gallbladder

most common anomaly of gallbladder

causes indentation

13

gallbladder wall

very thin

14

cholelithiasis

gallstones

very common

majority don't know it

15

risk of gallstones

infections - cholecystitis
obstruction
gallbladder cancer - chronic presence
acute pancreatitis

16

3 types of gallstones

cholesterol - most common
black
brown

17

cholesterol stones

majority
-yellow tan appearance

flat edges - long time - rubbing up against eachother

18

fat, female, fertile, forty

cholesterol gallstones

19

calcium carbonate

give hardness to cholesterol stone

and make seeing it on xray easier

20

path of cholesterol stones

supersaturation in gallbladder or biliary tree

lithogenic - easier to form stone

hypomotility - leads to sludge - important for stone formation
-thick stuff

-nidus - where stones crystallize on

21

cyst

abnormal bile flow - more likely stone formation

22

lumen of gallbladder

abnormal - more likely lithogenic bile to form stones

23

sludge

in gallbladder

can allow stone formation and bacterial growth

24

accretion of cholesterol

stone formation

25

nidus

nucleation for cholesterol formation of stone

26

increased cholesterol secretion

age, estrogen, obesity

27

pima indians

more cholesterol stones

28

crohns disease

more cholesterol stones

29

stone formation

supersatiration
crystallization - nidus
flow - turbulence
accretion - sludge

biliary tree/gallbladder
-and other organs - kidneys, bladder, prostate, salivary glands, pancreas

30

cholesterolosis

accumulation of cholesterol in mucosa of gallbladder

gives white yellow dots with red bkg - strawberry gallbladder

can cause gallbladder pain

31

strawberry gallbladder

cholesterolosis diagnosis**

32

black stones

polymers of unconjugated bilirubin

usually very small

see on xray

with chronic hemolysis

33

chronic hemolysis

black stones

34

brown stones

unconjugated bilirubin and cholesterol

with infection - e. coli and liver flukes - c. sinensis**

softer and crumble

don't see on xray

35

c. sinensis

liver fluke - brown stone

36

cholecystitis

inflammation of gallbladder

37

choledocholithiasis

stones in bile duct

38

gallstone location

most formed in gallbladder
-can get stuck in cystic duct
-pushed to common bile duct

39

gallstone stuck in cystic duct

more stones - stasis

wall of gallbladder - can experience ischemia - induces inflammation - chronic or acute

predisposition to infection**

40

gallstone in common bile duct

obstruct bile from gallbladder and from liver

backup behind stone
-leads to more stone formation
-jaundice
-infection
-cancer

41

ascending cholangitis

ascending infection up biliary tree with gallstone

42

gallstone in common hepatopancreatic duct

acute pancreatitis can occur

with all the problems in liver and gallbladder

43

gallstone high up in bilary tree

abscess and infection

44

acalculous cholecystitis

critically ill

hypovolemic shock - ischemia to gallbladder - no stones

45

biliary dyskinesia

young women

gallbladder pain due to sphincter of oddi**

pressure gradient to the gallbladder