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Flashcards in Gender bias Deck (17)
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1

Alpha bias

where differences between men and women are exaggerated

2

beta bias

when the differences between men and women are minimised

3

androcentrism

when ‘normal’ behaviour is judged according to the male standard so female behaviour is regarded as abnormal

4

what is gender bias

when one gender is treated less favourably than the other, often referred to as sexism

5

possible consequences to gender bias

validating sex discrimination, upholding stereotypical assumptions, scientifically misleading

6

positive ao3 of gender bias- alpha bias

-has led to some theorists (Gilligan) to assert the worth and valuation of feminine qualities
-has led to healthy criticism of cultural values that praise certain male qualities such as aggression

7

positive ao3 of gender bias- beta bias

makes people see men and women as the same, led to qual treatment in legal terms

8

negative ao3 of gender bias- alpha bias

-focus on differences between genders leads to the implication of similarity within genders thus ignores the many ways women differ from each other
-can sustain prejudices and stereotypes

9

negative ao3 of gender bias- beta bias

-draws attention away from the differences in power between men and women
-is considered as an egalitarian approach but it results in major misrepresentations of both genders

10

Consequences of gender bias

Feminists argue that although gender differences are minimal or non-existent are used to maintain male power

11

examples of gender bias in research

-Kohlberg based his stages of moral development around male moral reasoning and had an all male sample then generalised his findings to women (beta bias) and also claimed women generally reached a lower level of moral development (androcentrism)
-Freud- his ideas are seen as inherently gender biased, All his theories are androcentric, most obviously ‘penis envy’ The idea that women are defined psychologically by the fact that they aren’t men

12

sexism within the research process- ao3

A lack of women appointed at senior research level means that female concerns may not be reflected in the research questions asked

13

implications of gender bias

may validate stereotypes and discrimination eg research into pms

14

sexism within the research process

research questions oriented to male concerns
preference for results showing gender differences
lab experiment disadvantages women

15

reflexivity

being upfront about ones biases and preconceptions can reduce gender bias (Dambrin and Lambert)

16

Essentialism

gender differences presented as fixed in nature often politically motivated

17

feminist psychology

worrell proposes that research should be collaborative and in context