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Flashcards in General Deck (92):
1

Necrosis types

Coagulative is denature then degrade, binds acidophilic dye

Liquifactive has macrophages or neutrophils

Caseous has macrophages - Tb, histoplasma, and nocardia

Fat is dark blue on h and e

Fibrinoid in malignant HTN and vasculitis

2

Irreversible Cell injury

Nuclear pyknosis karyorrhexis or karyolysis but not chromatin clumping

Permeability but not swelling

Not atp, glycogen depletion
Not ribosome detachment (CCl4 fatty change)

3

Hypoxia ischemic encephalopathy

Pyramidal cells of hippocampus

Purkinje cells of cerebellum

4

Ischemic areas

Sub endocardium of LV

Straight proximal tubule and thick ascending tubule, both in medulla

5

Pale infarcts

Heart kidney spleen

6

Atrophy

Less metabolic demand from hospitalization

Occlusion of ducts in CF and stones

Pressure in kidney stone

7

Acute inflammation


Chronic inflammation

Eosinophils and antibodies



Can lead to scar or amyloid paid

8

Apoptosis

DNA laddering 180 no

Bcl2 inhibits apaf1 in intrinsic pathway, which inhibits caspase activation finally... Too much inhibition in follicular lymphoma

Fas-L for thymic negative selection coalesces to bind FADD which activates caspase a

9

Dystrophic calcification

TB pericardium

Schistosomiasis

Congenital CMV with toxoplasmosis

Normal ca level in abnormal tissue

10

Metastatic calcification

Warfarin

Dialysis

Vitamin D

sarcoidosis

high pH of kidney, lung, gastric mucosa

11

rolling


tight binding

diapedesis

migration

Glycam, CD34 (vessel) binds L-selectin
E/P selectin bind Siayl Lewis

ICam/CD54 binds CD 11/18 = LFA1/Mac1
VCAM/CD106 binds VLA4

Pecam/CD31

PAF, chemotactics

12

free radicals

bound by transferrin and ceruloplasmin

cause retinopathy of prematurity (hyper vascular)

bronchopulmonary dysplasia, hemochromatosis

13

scar formation at 80% strength

3 months

14

PDGF

from platelets and macrophages

stimulates fibroblasts

15

TGFB

stimulates angiogenesis, fibrosis, and cell cycle arrest

16

phase 3 wound healing

remodeling with fibroblasts

17

granulomatous diseases

Crohns
Listeria
Tertiary syphilis
Schistosomiasis

18

Exudate vs. transudate

thick exudate G>1.020 = lympatics, cancer, infection

thin transudate G

19

ESR

high in anemias except sickle cell/microsytosis

high in pregnancy, cancer
infection, inflammation

low in heart failure

20

AL primary amyloidosis

causes nephrotic syndrome, cardiac arrhythmia (faster than senile transthyretin form), bruising, megaly, neuropathy, tongue enlarge?

21

Dialysis amyloidosis

causes carpal tunnel, joint deposits

22

rolling


tight binding

diapedesis

migration

Glycam, CD34 (vessel) binds L-selectin
E/P selectin bind Siayl Lewis

ICam/CD54 binds CD 11/18 = LFA1/Mac1
VCAM/CD106 binds VLA4

Pecam/CD31

PAF, chemotactics

23

free radicals

bound by transferrin and ceruloplasmin

cause retinopathy of prematurity (hyper vascular)

bronchopulmonary dysplasia, hemochromatosis

24

inhaled injury

less than 1 micron or NH3

causes pneumonia, edema

25

scar formation at 80% strength

3 months

26

PDGF

from platelets and macrophages

stimulates fibroblasts

27

TGFB

stimulates angiogenesis, fibrosis, and cell cycle arrest

28

phase 3 wound healing

remodeling with fibroblasts

29

granulomatous diseases

Crohns
Listeria
Tertiary syphilis
Schistosomiasis

30

Exudate vs. transudate

thick exudate G>1.020 = lympatics, cancer, infection

thin transudate G

31

Radiation cancers

papillary thyroid, breast
leukemia, sarcoma

32

AL primary amyloidosis

causes nephrotic syndrome, cardiac arrhythmia, bruising, megaly, neuropathy

33

Dialysis amyloidosis

causes carpal tunnel

34

islet amyloid polypeptide

type 2 DM, amylin in islets

35

PGP

MDR1, seen in adrenal cell carcinoma

36

desmoplasia

irreversible, linitis plastica in gastric cancer

37

carcinoma

hamartoma

choristoma

lymphatic spread
-except rcc, hepatocellular, thyroid follicular, choriocarcinoma

Peutz Jeghers polyps

Meckel diverticulum

38

dermato/polymyositis

get genitourinary cancers

39

multiple seborrheic keratoses

GI, breast, lung, lymphoid cancers

40

tuberous sclerosis

benign hamatomas may become malignant:

renal angiomyolipomas
giant cell astrocytomas
cardiac rhabdomyoma

41

AIDS cancers

non Hodgkins
Kaposi

42

Immunodeficiency cancers

RCC, melanoma, lymphoma

43

Radiation cancers

papillary thyroid, breast
leukemia, sarcoma

44

BCR-ABL oncogene

ALL

and CML

45

Melanoma, non Hodgkin oncogene

BRAF

=ser/threonine kinase

46

Benzidine, 2-napthylamine

aromatic amines causing transitional cell ccr

47

Her2neu oncogene

gastric carcinoma

and breast, ovarian

48

RAS oncogene

colon, lung, pancreas = crappy

49

SMAD4 tumor suppressor

= DPC4 = pancreatic cancer

50

NF1 tumor suppressor makes...
NF2 makes...

RasGTPase
Merlin/schwannomin

51

p16 tumor suppressor

= CDKI2A = melanoma

52

PTEN tumor suppressor

prostate, breast, endometrial ccr

53

osteosarcoma tumor suppressor

Rb

54

VHL tumor suppressor makes...

inhibitor or hypoxia inducible factor 1a

RCC or VHL disease

55

Seminoma marker

alkaline phosphatase (placental)

56

CA15-3/CA27-29 marker

Breast cancer

57

CEA marker

colorectal and pancreas car
gastric! breast! thyroid! = me

58

Benzidine, 2-napthylamine

aromatic amines causing transitional cell car

59

Liver angiosarcoma from...

arsenic

60

Smoking cancers are...

transitional cell carcinoma
cervical carcinoma
pancreatic carcinoma
lung, renal cell, esophageal, laryngeal

61

1,25 OH2 D3 high in...

Lymphoma paraneoplastic

62

EPO high in...

Leiomyoma, pheochromocytoma

rcc, hemagioblastoma, liver ccr

63

PTHrP high in...

breast cancer, renal cell

and squamous

64

PSaMMoma

papillary carcinoma of thyroid
serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma ovary
meningioma
mesothelioma

65

lung cancer goes to

brain > bone

66

breast cancer goes to

bone or brain

67

prostate cancer goes to

bone >> brain

68

stomach or pancreatic cancer goes to

liver

69

thyroid or kidney cancer goes to

bone

70

melanoma goes to

brain

71

apocrine metaplasia of breast

no increased cancer risk

72

keratomalacia

squamous conjunctiva becomes stratified keratinizing due to low vitamin A

73

LPS binds

CD14 on macrophage = TLR

74

Factor 12

= Hageman factor = proinflammatory from liver

collagen exposure leads to:
bradykinin (be kind!)
complement (compliment!)
coagulation (don't bleed!)

75

MPO

H2O2 to HOCl*

"my sod (nadph) ox" backwards

deficiency MAY cause Candida
NBT normal

76

Catalase positive

Staph aureus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Nocardia, Aspergillis

77

IL12

from macrophages
causes Th1

78

SCID

can be MHCII deficiency

79

Bruton's agammaglobulinemia

after 6 mo
Giardia lambia, polio, coxsackie virus
bacteria

80

CVID

Low Ig from B/Th fail
late childhood
get autoimmune and lymphomas

81

Hyper IgM

mutated CD40L or CD40-R (B cell)
pyogenic infections at mucosal sites

82

Lupus antibodies

ANA = not specific
dsDNA = specific
30% anti-phospholipid
-anticardiolipin causes FP syphilis
-lupus anticoagulant prolongs PTT
-get DVT, hepatic vein, placental, stroke

83

Sjogren antibodies

ANA
Anti-SS-A = Ro
Anti-SS-B = La
get B cell/marginal zone lymphoma, which enlarges parotid gland on one side

84

Diffuse scleroderma

skin and early visceral
often esophageal dysmotility
ANA and anti-DNA topo 1 (SCl-70)

85

localized scleroderma

CREST
calcinosis, anti-centromere
raynaud
esophageal dysmotility
sclerodactyly
telangectasias

86

MCTD antibody

anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein
"UMC"

87

Determine clonality

G6PD isoform on X
androgen recepter isoform on X

88

kappa to lambda ration

3:1
"kappa tau vs lambda chi"

89

ckit

Burkitt lymphoma
t(8;14) with IgH

90

cyclin D1

t(11;14) with IgH
Mantle cell lymphoma

91

CDK4

melanoma

92

vimentin

mesenchyme IF stain