Flashcards in general ENT Deck (24):
What is a branchial cleft cyst?
Congenital cysts derived from the embryological remnants of the first and 2nd branchial pouches. Once infected, can present as neck lumps. Often appear cystic and rounded on imaging
what is a cholesteastoma?
This is a sac full of keratinising squamous cell debris that can invade into the temporal bone/facial nerve etc. It is usually located in the middle ear and is associated with foul smelling ottorrhea
what are the complications of acute otitis media?
mastoiditis, intracranial sepsis, otitic hydrocephalus
or chronic otitis media
management of acute otitis media?
topical/oral antibiotic therapy
what are the organisms that cause acute otitis media?
who are the children who should get middle ear ventilation tubes?
otitis media effusions for at least 4 months with evidence of hearing loss/delayed speech
otitis media effusions and evidence of structural damage
what are some complications of cholesteatoma?
1. conductive hearing loss from invasion into ossicles
2. sensorineural hearing loss from invasion into labyrinth
4. facial nerve palsy
5. may become intracranial
what is a negative rhine's test?
when bone conduction is better than air conduction
- this indicates conductive hearing loss
what are some causes of otorrhoea?
1. otitis externa
2. ear wax
3. otitis media with perforation
4. chronic suppurative otitis media +/- cholesteatoma
5. foreign body in the ear canal
what nerves carry referred pain to the ear? (referred otalgia)
also C2, C3
management of ramsay hunt syndrome?
-acyclovir if early treatment
what is the pathology of BPPV
otoliths from utricle come loose and lodge in the semicircular canals
what is vestibular neuritis?
post viral inflammation of the vestibular ganglion resulting in vertigo without tinnitus or hearing loss
how might you manage sudden sensorineural hearing loss
early management with steroids may help improve/regain hearing
what is rhinitis?
inflammation of the nasal mucosa
what sort of hearing loss is acoustic neuroma?
sensorineural hearing loss
what is rhino sinusitis?
inflammation of nasal mucosa due to infection (bacterial/viral)
most common pathogen for rhino sinusitis?
which artery causes posterior epistaxis?
when might you consider tonsillectomy?
greater than 6 times tonsillitis or if it causes OSA
what do you consider if you have a base of tongue swelling?
nasopharyngeal airway or tracheostomy
what is quinsy?
what can cause hoarseness?
vocal cords paralysis
SCC of the larynx