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Flashcards in general ENT Deck (24):
1

What is a branchial cleft cyst?

Congenital cysts derived from the embryological remnants of the first and 2nd branchial pouches. Once infected, can present as neck lumps. Often appear cystic and rounded on imaging

2

what is a cholesteastoma?

This is a sac full of keratinising squamous cell debris that can invade into the temporal bone/facial nerve etc. It is usually located in the middle ear and is associated with foul smelling ottorrhea

3

what are the complications of acute otitis media?

mastoiditis, intracranial sepsis, otitic hydrocephalus
or chronic otitis media

4

management of acute otitis media?

analgesia
ear cleaning
topical/oral antibiotic therapy

5

what are the organisms that cause acute otitis media?

strep pneumonia
haemophillis influenza
moraxella catarallis

6

who are the children who should get middle ear ventilation tubes?

otitis media effusions for at least 4 months with evidence of hearing loss/delayed speech

otitis media effusions and evidence of structural damage

7

what are some complications of cholesteatoma?

1. conductive hearing loss from invasion into ossicles
2. sensorineural hearing loss from invasion into labyrinth
3. vertigo
4. facial nerve palsy
5. may become intracranial

8

what is a negative rhine's test?

when bone conduction is better than air conduction
- this indicates conductive hearing loss

9

what are some causes of otorrhoea?

1. otitis externa
2. ear wax
3. otitis media with perforation
4. chronic suppurative otitis media +/- cholesteatoma
5. foreign body in the ear canal

10

what nerves carry referred pain to the ear? (referred otalgia)

CN 7
CN 10
CN 11
CN V3
also C2, C3

11

management of ramsay hunt syndrome?

oral steroids
-acyclovir if early treatment

12

what is the pathology of BPPV

otoliths from utricle come loose and lodge in the semicircular canals

13

what is vestibular neuritis?

post viral inflammation of the vestibular ganglion resulting in vertigo without tinnitus or hearing loss

14

how might you manage sudden sensorineural hearing loss

early management with steroids may help improve/regain hearing

15

what is rhinitis?

inflammation of the nasal mucosa

16

what sort of hearing loss is acoustic neuroma?

sensorineural hearing loss

17

what is rhino sinusitis?

inflammation of nasal mucosa due to infection (bacterial/viral)

18

most common pathogen for rhino sinusitis?

rhinovirus

19

which artery causes posterior epistaxis?

sphenopalatine artery

20

when might you consider tonsillectomy?

greater than 6 times tonsillitis or if it causes OSA

21

what do you consider if you have a base of tongue swelling?

nasopharyngeal airway or tracheostomy

22

what is quinsy?

peritonsilar abscess

23

what can cause hoarseness?

vocal cords paralysis
SCC of the larynx
thyroid cancer
GORD
vocal nodules

24

signs of base of skull fracture?

1. CSF rhinorrhea/otorrrhea
2. racoon eyes
3. bruising on mastoid part of temporal bone
4. haemotympanium
5. subconjunctival haemorrhage with no posterior limit