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Flashcards in general radiology Deck (31):
1

what does this show? what is its significance?

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lipohaemarthrosis. can tell by the fat and the blood layering (fat is darker than blood).

occurs when there is a tibial fracture that involves the bone marrow--> fat leaking out

2

What are the arrows pointing to? What conditions do you see this?

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air bronchograms. These are found in lung consolidation and acute pulmonary oedema

3

Describe what you see. How old do you think this woman is and why?

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Increased density of the breast parenchyma in both breasts. Indicates the woman is young as you get older the breast tissue becomes less dense due to fatty replacement

4

what is this?

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sigmoid volvulus coffee bean sign

5

 

Difference between cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema?

 

 

Vasogenic- sticks to the white matter

-finger like appearance

= tumour or mass

 

Cytotoxic-

can involve the cortex as well

often due to an infarct 

appears blurred and wedge shaped

6

what can central crowding of bowel on AXR indicate?

ascites

7

what is this? what is the name of the condition?

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Chilaiditi syndrome- large bowel under the diaphragm

8

what is pneumobiliary?

air in the biliary tree

9

what are the arrows pointing to? what does it indicate?

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rigler sign

aka double wall sign.

indicates air on both sides of the intestine- i.e. within the lumen and in the intraperitoneal space

--> indicates pneumoperitoneum

10

what is the diameter of small bowel obstruction

2.5-3 cm dilated small bowel

11

what is the # of air fluid levels on AXR that might make you think some pathology is going on

greater than 5

12

Describe this infarct

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wedged shaped hypodensity without mass effect or vasogenic oedema in the right hemisphere. Most likely consistent with previous infarction in a branch off the right middle cerebral artery

13

what are some signs of an acute infarct on CT brain?

loss of gray white differentiation

+ hypodensity in the region of an artery vascular territory

 

nb: Non contrast CT may be normal in the first 6 hours following symptom onset

14

what is the abnormality

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Right cerebellar haemorrhage on CT

15

what are some causes of secondary cerebral haemorrhage?

AVMS

aneurysms

amyloid angiopathy

venous infarcts

tumours

16

what is the abnormality?

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thromboembolism in the basillar artery

17

what is the abnormality?

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multiple T2 hyperintense lesions around the ventricles in the white matter-consistent with MS

18

which is which- cytotoxic vs vasogenic oedema?

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left= cytotoxic (BBB is not disrupted)

Right= vasogenic (BBB is disrupted)

19

what type of oedema is associated with tumours and stroke?

tumours- vasogenic

stroke= cytotoxic

20

what can you see here?

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fat pad sign indicated intraarticular fracture

21

what is IVP? how can we use it to look at renal stones?

IVP= intravenous pyelogram

Preliminary AXR is performed

IV iodinated contrasted administered intravenously

Contrast is followed through ureteric system over the next 45 mins till excreted 

looking for any filling defect

22

what are some indications on u/s and CT of fatty liver change?

increased echogenicity in the liver ultrasound and decreased density in the CT abdo of the liver (such that the intrahepatic vessels appear higher density than the liver parenchyma)

23

what are some causes of an echogenic liver lesion on ultrasound?

haemangioma

liver mets

24

how might you tell a liver haemangioma on CT

the haemangioma increases with density after contrast

25

what is this?

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meningioma

26

difference between monteggia and galeazzi fracture?

both involve forearm bone fracture and dislocation

Monteggia- ulnar fracture + anterior dislocation of the radial head

Galleazi= distal radial fracture + distal dislocation of radial/ulnar joint

27

what are hills sachs lesions associated with?

anterior inferior dislocation of the shoulder

28

mechanism of injury for anterior shoulder dislocation?

 forced abduction, external rotation and extension

29

what is the arrow pointing to?

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pleural plaque

30

what is the abnormality?

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tumour infiltration--> mesothelioma

31