Flashcards in General Relevant Questions Deck (60):
Pectoral Major blood supply and movement
Suprascapular nerve (navy below bridge)
Suprascapular artery (army on bridge)
process that is superior and anterior
What muscle connects to the superior angle of scapula?
Levator Scapula (dorsal scapular artery)
What three muscles does the dorsal scapular artery supply?
Rhomboids and levator scapulae
What does the thoracoacromial artery supply?
Pectoralis Major and Minor
What is the movement of the pectoralis minor?
protracts, depresses, and stabilize scapula
What innervates the subscapularis?
The greater and lesser subscapular nerve.
long thoracic nerve
superficial side of muscle
Subclavius (innervation and movement)
Nerve to subclavius
anchors and depresses clavicle
Posterior humeral circumflex artery and axillary
Deltoid, teres minor
Adduction medial rotation
lower subscapular nerve
What does the subocciptal nerve innervate?
Rectus capitus posterior major
obliquues capitis superior and inferior
What type of joint is atlanto occiptal and what motion is performed there
synovial, shaking head no
Kyphosis vs Lordosis
hunchback, curvature in thoracic --kyphosis
lumbar curvature --lordosis
Rectus capitis posterior minor connections
Posterior tubercle of atlas and inserts on occipital bone
collection of dorsal and ventral roots of the lower lumbar and sacral spinal nerves. arise from the conus medullaris (T12-L2)
what is the blood supply to the trapezius
what is the blood supply of the latissimus dorsi
thoracodorsal artery and nerve (ventral rami of the spinal nerves)
What two superficial intrinsic back muscles provide lateral flexion, rotation, and extension (bilateral contraction) of the neck/head?
What are the classifications of intrinsic back muscles from superficial to deep?
Superficial-- Spinotransverse (Splenius Capitis and Cervicis)
Intermediate --Erector Spinae (Illiocostalis, Logissimus, Spinalis)
Deep-- Transversospinal (Semispinalis, Rotatores, Multifidus)
What muscles are supplied by: thoracodorsal, transverse cervical, and dorsal scapular?
Transverse cervical- traps
dorsal scapular -levator, rhomboids
Spondolysis occurs in what area of the spinal vertebra
Pars interarticularis-- the area between the inferior and superior articulation processes.
Thoracic vertebra and articulation with ribs
Body of vertebra- head of corresponding (superior costal facet) and inferior (inferior costal facet) ribs
Neck of ribs- no articulation
Transverse process of vertebra - tubercle of corresponding rib
How can you differentiate between spinalis cervicis and semisplinalis cervicis?
Spinalis cervicis--transverso-spinal muscle--spinous process to spinous process. extension of spinal cord because it can't rotate if it's just connected to spinous processes
Semispinalis cervicis--spinotransverse--spinous process to transverse process (SEMI spinalis, so not to two spinous processes, just one)... rotation, lateral flexion
What are the components of a synovial joint?
Bone or cartilage, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, fiberous joint capsule, ligaments, nerves and blood vessels
Joints between vertebral bodies
Joints between articulating processes
What is the innervation of teres major and minor?
Major- lower subscapular nerve
Minor -axillary nerve
What innervates the subscapular muscle
Upper and Lower subscapular nerve
shunt between arterioles and venules that can divert blood away from a capillary bed
scapular arterial anastomosis-- subclavian artery and corresponding axillary artery
Injury to Dorsal scapular nerve
retraction of the scapula on affected side will be weakened
Injury to suprascapular nerve
Supraspinatusand Infraspinatus muscle -- lateral rotation of the humerus weakened
ADduction of the humerus
Latissimus Dorsi (thoracodorsal nerve) (sensation:dorsal primary ramus)
Pectoralis Major and minor
teres major, gravity (depending on body position),
lowest fibers of the deltoid (making deltoid its own antagonist)
Three ligaments passed through during spinal tap
Supraspinous, Interspinous, and ligamentum flavum
What does the thoracoacromial artery supply?
Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, and deltoid muscle, and acromioclavicular joint
What muscle connects to the coracoid process?
Lower Subscapular Artery and Nerve
Supraspinatus (suprascapular n) (0-15)
Deltoid (axillary n) (15-90)
Trapezius (scapular rotation, accesory n) (90+)
Serratus anterior (long transverse n) (90+)
Fracture of surgical neck of humerus or inferior dislocation, what nerve and artery
axillary posterior humeral circumflex
Fracture of humerus, and effects on lateral rotation of the arm
injury to axillary nerve, and lateral rotation would be suprascapularis, infrascapularis, teres minor, and deltoid. BUT suprascapularis and infrascapularis are innervated by the supraspinatus nerveso they will still function, but not teres minor and deltoid
Sympathetic, postganglionic fiber cell bodies location and innervation
Located in the sympathetic trunk, and innervate sweat glands, blood vessels, and hair follicles
Dislocation of shoulder usually occurs
Dens of C2 articulates with
anterior arch of C1/atlas
Spondylolysis--fracture at the pars articularis
Winging of Scapula, roots damaged
C5-C7 -- 5 6 7 wings to heaven. serratus anterior, long thoracic nerve
What creates the anastomoses around the scapula?
circumflex humeral, dorsal scapular, suprascapular artery
Additionally, if the subclavian or axillary artery needs to be ligated, blood can flow from the dorsal scapular artery and suprascapular artery to the circumflex scapular artery
Injury to Upper Roots of Brachial Plexus
Erb-Duchenne Palsy. It affects especially the suprascapular, axillary, and musculocutaneous nerves, which causes paralysis of the rotator cuff muscles, biceps, brachialis, coracobrachialis, and deltoid.
upper and lower subscapular nerves, denervating subscapularis and teres major.
lateral pectoral nerve, but the majority of pect major is innervated by medial pectoral nerve, so it is only weakened (can still flex).
the limb is constantly adducted and medially rotated.
the limb can no longer be abducted because both supraspinatus, which initiates abduction, and deltoid, which allows for complete abduction, have been denervated.
Cephalic, Basilic, and Median cubital vein
Cephalic runs through deltopectoral groove/triangle on the radial/lateral/thumb side of the arm. Basilic vein runs under the arm on the medial/pinky/ulnar side of the arm. Median cubital vein connects these two
Branches of the Axillary Arter
1- superior thoracic artery (think #1is the best, so superior)
2- thoracoacromial and lateral thoracic (think: 2 times thorac.
3- subscapular, posterior and anterior humeral circumflex (think: three is the lowest, so it is SUB.)
What is the branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and what does it do?
lateral antebrachial cutaneous n. (think muscuLAcutaneous. LA. lateral antebrachial). innervation of lateral part of the forarm
fracture to the surgical neck of the humerus
The posterior and anterior circumflex arteries wrap around the humerus near its surgical neck.
axillary nerve (think that the posterior circumflex runs with this)
Fracture of humerus at mid length?
radial and deep brachial artery (extension of the forearm)
Nerve effected by blood drawn
Looking for the median cubital vein, but this runs with the median nerve (THINK median median)... loss of sensation radial half of the palm and palmer side of lateral 3 1/2 digits
What nerve supplies the deltoid muscle and what are its spinal roots
Axillary (C5 and C6)
Supraspinatus vs Subscapularis
Supraspinatus (abduction, suprascapular n) (think:supraman, abducting his arms to fly)
Subscapularis (medial rotation,upper subscapularis)
Supraspinatus vs Infraspinatus
both part of the rotator cuff
What is the divisions of nerves in the PNS?
midshaft fracture to humerus
radial nerve and deep brachial artery
Supracondylar fracture of humerus
median nerve (lies medial to brachial artery at elbow) and brachial artery