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Flashcards in General Terms Deck (92):
0

In the open air; out of doors; Italian for "in the fresh air"

Al Fresco

1

A tree or shrub of the Mimosaceous genus, native to warm geographical regions; a favorite vegetative form in much artwork in the Middle East; Gum Arabic

Acacia

2

A place shaded by trees or shrubs; an open structure, usually consisting of a horizontal framework or a littice work supported by columns on which vines or other plants are trained

Arbor

3

A real or imaginary straight line on which an object rotates or is perceived to balance; a centerline along which the parts of an object are symmetrically balanced

Axis

4

The place of several elements along a single centerline or at cross axes to main axis

Axial Planning

5

Italian word for Bas-relief meaning low relief

Basso Rilievo

6

Sculpture or carving of shallow depth, usually on a flat or curvd surface of stone; figures project minimally from the monolithic background stone

Bas-relief

7

Two-sided or arranged on opposite sides of an axis; symmetrical

Bilateral

9

From the Paleolithic Era; a large horizontal slab-like stone that spans several upright stones as a prehistoric monument or tomb

Cromlech

9

A low plain along a streambed or channel that is subject to flooding; soil is composed of sediments deposited by the stream

Floodplain

10

Large upright stones capped with a covering slab; erected in prehistoric times as a monument or tomb

Dolmen

11

A deposit of rock, gravel, and sand particles that have been transported and laid down by a flowing body of water

Alluvial Deposit

12

A green, sometimes moist and cool, fertile place in a desert area

Oasis

13

Having to do with right angles, rectangular, linear, or axial

Orthogonal

14

A garden structure consisting of a trellis supported by posts or columns and upon which vines or other plants are trained

Pergola

15

A doorway, gate, or entrance, especially a large and imposing one; pylon

Portal

16

The Latin word that means "the paintings that adorned the walls of porticos"

Topia

17

Evergreen plants carved into geometrical or sculptural forms

Topiary

18

The physical features, both natural and human-made, on the earth's surface; relief, drainage, surface materials, vegetation, special physical phenomena, and human-made (cultural) features

Topography

19

A pyramidal staged tower, of which the angles were oriented to the cardinal points

Ziggurat

20

A coniferous tree with evergeen needle-like leaves, cones, and a chracterisitc fragrance; regarded as sacred in much of the ancient Near East (Scientific Name and Common Name)

Cedrus libani (Cedar of Lebanon)

21

The hardier coniferous tree with evergeen need-like leaves, cones, and characteristic fragrance; more widely found in America

Cedrus libani sterrocoma

22

A place of delight; a terrestrial paradise; said to be in the eastern part of the world and surrounded by a high wall or mountains

Eden

24

A raised place or small hill, usually human-made, designed to give a view of the estate

Mount

24

An ancient structural system comprised of vertical supports, spanned by horizontal beams

Post and Lintel

25

Any place of great beauty and perfection; a place or condition of great happiness; heaven

Paradise

26

A geometric figure having four side and four angles

Quadrilateral

27

A composition that consists of two axes intersecting at right angles and resulting in all four subdivisions or quadrants being equal; biaxial

Quadrilateral Symmetry

28

The region where the stages of the ziggurats were developed into continuous inclined ramp circulating the four sides

Assyrian Region

29

The devise for raising water; used for the irrigation of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon; also used by the ancient Egyptians for pumping water from the Nile into their vast system of irrigation canals; invented by the Mesopotamian civilizations

Spiral Pump

30

Persian word for garden, especially one that is quadripartite or subdivided into four quadrants by water channels crossing at its center; where the capital city of Iraq gotten its name, hence "Garden City"

Bagh

31

An important element in ancient Mesopotamian temple complexes; the number of its stages rose from one to seven in the course of time; often, each stage was faced in a stone of a different color, with the top most shrine being the most brilliant in tone

Ziggurat

32

A large square cloth worn by women in India; Hindu word for "shawl"; used to describe the carved marble water chutes in the Moghul gardens of India and Pakistan where water is made to flow from a pool over a rippled incline to appear to sparkle as it descends to a lower pool

Chadar (Chador, Chuddar, or Chuder)

33

Persian word for underground water canals that were constructed through the desert to bring water from a remote source to irrigate cultivated lands

Qanat

34

The Persian word meaning "fence" or "enclosure;" in Arabic, it means "walled around"

Pairidaeza (Paradise)

35

A garden created to symbolize the qualities of heaven

Paradise Garden

36

A fortress or fortified place such as a town with a commanding height for military advantages

Citadel

37

A porch-like structure consisting of a roof supported by columns and attached to a building

Porticos

38

The public open space for social, civic, and market purposes; normally surrounded by public buildings

Forum

39

The belief that all natural objects, animate or inamite, as well as the universe, possess a soul

Animism

40

Attributing human firm or characteristics to inanimate objects, animals or to a god

Anthropomorphic

41

The horizontal top part of an order of classical architecture supported by columns

Entablature

41

The three components of an entablature

Architrave
Frieze
Cornice

42

A vertical, weight-carrying architectural support; circular in cross section, and consisting of a base, a shaft, and a capital; can be erected as freestanding monuments

Column or Pillar

45

The city that is the seat of government of a country, state, or province; any form of wealth (money or property) capable or being employed in the production of more wealth

Capital

47

Vertical channeling or grooves; semicircular in cross section; used principally on columns and pilasters

Flute or Fluting

48

A series or row of columns spanned by lintels

Colonnade

49

Freestanding masonry support for an arch, usually square in section; same function as a column or pillar

Pier

51

The topmost feature of a column, post, or pilaster; in classical architecture, it followed various architectural orders

Capital

53

A flat, rectangular column attached to a wall as decoration rather than structure; usually of the same design order as its structural counterparts; an attached column

Pilaster

55

A spiral scroll-like form characteristic of the Greek Ionic Capital

Volute

57

In architecture, the part of a column between the capital and base

Shaft

59

In architectural ornamentation, a flat square molding separating other moldings; a narrow band between two flutings in a column

Fillet

60

An architectural member of wood or stone that projects beyond a wall to support a weight such as a roof or balcony; generally, formed of scrolls or volutes

Brackets

61

Another term for brackets when supporting the upper portion of a cornice

Consoles

63

In Classical or Renaissance architecture, the topmost projecting portion of the entablature;also refers to any crowning projection of a building

Cornice

64

The foot or bottom support of a column, pillar, statue, etc.

Pedestal

65

A Greek term meaning "chief beam;" the beam or lowest division of the entablature which extends from column to column; term also applied to the molded frame around a door or window

Architrave

66

The portion of the entablature between the architrave and cornice in Classical architecture

Frieze

67

In classical architecture, the triangular space at the end of a building formed by the ends of the sloping roof and the cornice; also an ornamental feature having this shape

Pediment or Gable

68

Engineered distribution of water onto land to promote the growth of vegetation where insufficient natural rainfall limits plant growth

Irrigation

69

The belief in many gods

Polytheism

70

Th interval or area between or within things which has kength, breadth, and height

Space

71

The art of space utilization

Landscape Architecture

72

A space with definite character; consciously intended or appears to be purposeful and not accidental

Positive Space

73

Bounded by definite edges such as walls, dense vegetation, or landforms; feels unambiguous and has an unmistakable clarity or integrity

Positive Space

74

Without a definite, consciously intended purpose; accidental; not bounded by definite edges such as walls, dense vegetation, or landforms; feels ambiguous and lacks clarity or integrity

Negative Space

75

Of the time prior to the fall of the Western Roman Empire

Ancient

76

The original model or design from which all other things of thr dsmr kind are made

Archetype

77

Gigantic; vast and rough; massive; an architectural style of stone stone construction using large irregular blocks without mortar

Cyclopean

78

Any substance used as a binder for other substances

Cement

79

A viscous mixture cement or lime with sand and water; used to bond units such as concrete blocks, bricks, or stoned together; also used as a plaster or stucco

Mortar

80

In architecture, the flat slab atop the capital of a column, supporting the entablature or other super-structure

Abacus

81

A line of arches resting on piers or columns

Arcade

82

A structural device, semicircular or pointed in shape, formed of separated truncated wedge-shaped blocks to span an opening

Arch

83

Relating to shepherds or herdsmen; typical rural life; having thr charm or simplicity of rural pastureland

Bucolic or pastoral

84

Pastoral poem

Bucolic

85

A place full of intricate passageways; a network of interconnecting passages; formed of clipped evergeen hedges

Labyrinth

86

Patterns or composition formed by embedding small pieces of stone or glass (tesserae) in mortar or wet plaster on surface such as walls and floors

Mosaic

87

A molding formed by a convex and concave curve; also an S-curved form

Ogee

88

A view whose dominant characteristic is its breadth; series of pictures of a landscape displayed on a continuous surface

Panorama

89

A masonry roof or ceiling constructed on the arch principle

Vault

90

A type of vault; semicylindrical in criss section; a deep arch or an uninterrupted series if arches one behind the other

Barrel Vault

91

A symbolic line that extends from the sky to the underworld with the earth at its center; trees, mountains, pyramids, and earth mounds might all be considered as such

Axis mundi

92

The day the sun crosses the equator, marking days and night of equal length

Equinox

93

Dates of vernal (spring) equinox and the autumnal equinoz

March 20 and September 23

94

The furthest point the sun reaches in the sky

Solstice

95

Dates of the summer solstice (the longest day of the year) and the winter solstice (shortest day of the year)

June 21 and December 21

96

A vaulted, semicircular recess in a building

Apse

97

Images inscriped on the earth

Geoglyphs

98

A sunken or subterranean ceremonial room used in a Puebloan cultures

Kiva

99

A megalith, an individual standing stone

Menhir