Outline II: Middle Ages Flashcards Preview

Reviewer: History of Landscape Architecture > Outline II: Middle Ages > Flashcards

Flashcards in Outline II: Middle Ages Deck (19):

Date of the Medieval Ages (Dark Ages)

A.D. 476 - c. 1350


Comprises today's Western Europe countries (Italy, Spain, Britain, France, Germany)

Christian Europe


High level of technological achievement of the classical times was eroded by the destruction of libraries and classics; Christianity was the common religious belief; reverted to the provincialism of pre-Roman times ; majority of creative effort was directed toward defensive or religious objectives

Christian Europe - Medieval Period


Describe Monasteries (3 Key Points)

Autonomous or semi-self sufficient
Orderly arrangement of facilities
Central open space (cloister) as focus of monastery complex


Open space, usually near center with church or cathedral, town hall, and central public water well; irregular in configuration; often no streets passed straight through; public gathering space of citizenry

Square, Piazza, or Plaza


Example of a Monastery

St. Paul's Outside-the-Walls, Rome (5th century)
St. Gall, Switzerland, A.D. 830


Example of a piazza

Piazza del Popolo, Todi, Italy
piazza della Signoria, Florence
piazza del Campo, Siena
Piazza San Marco, Venice


Design expressions of the Medieval Period (3 Key Points)

Walled Towns
Castle Gardens


The date that marks the beginning of the Mohammedan era

622 A.D.


Duration of the Islamic Spain

Eighth to fifteenth centuries A.D.


Similar to Moslem Middle East; extremely hot and dry with rugged and inarable landscape

Moorish Spain


The origin of the Islamic (Moorish) Spain in the early seventh century

Mecca (Saudi Arabia)


Forbid animal portrayal or animal or human forms, hence the development of elaborate geometric decorative embellishment for buildings and gardens

Islamic (Moorish) Spain

Other answer for another period: Persia


Belief in scientific evidence rather than miracles; paradise gardens created to prepare one for afterlife in heaven

Islamic Spain


Design expression of Islamic (Moorish) Spain (2 Key Points)

Religious Courtyard
Palace Courtyard


A place of spiritual preparation prior to entering house of worship

Religious Courtyard (Mosque)


An expression of "paradise"; idealized universe with four rivers of heaven; with elaborate geometric decorative architectural wall; has sequence of small cool interior chambers; where the King or sultan is carried as if on flying carpet; include central water feature and use of colorful glazed tiles

Palace Courtyards


Example of a palace courtyard

Canal Garden, Generalife, Granada, 1275
Palace of the Alcazar, Seville, 1364
Court of the Myrtles, Palace of the Alhambra, Granada, 1350
Court of the Lions, Palace of the Alhambra, Granada, 1375


Example of a religious courtyard

Court of the Oranges, Cordoba, c. A.D. 750-987