The Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries Flashcards Preview

Reviewer: History of Landscape Architecture > The Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries Deck (39):
1

Three schools of thought intermingled to motivate landscape design during the 18th century

Western classicism
(Baroque Italy or Grand Monarchy France)
China
(principles of irregularity and symbolism)
England
(against classicism - new and liberal age intermingling with chinoiserie)

2

New capital of Russia founded by Peter the Great in 1703; considered as a strategic 'window on to Europe'

St. Petersburg (Leningrand)

3

The palace of Peter the Great outside St. Petersburg, designed by Le Blond in 1717

Peterhof (Petrodvorets)

4

Erected between 1732 and 1762; supreme work of classical landscape art wherein the designers have created order and harmony out of the apparent chaos of natural rock form, by pure abstract design

Trevi Fountain

5

Capital of the world's first truly liberal society

Washington

6

Given the responsibility for the new design of Washington by President George Washington

Thomas Jefferson

7

A Frenchman ahosen as the professional town planner for Washington at Potomac (1791), however, his plans was unrealized as contemporary city and intractable to change and growth, thus, the idea collapsed

Pierre Charles L'Enfant

8

The place where Chinese landscape design reached a climax, at the same time as Versailles, and with a very similar objective - a continuity of history

Summer Palaces of Peking (Beijing)

9

Wrote the Gardens of Epicurus (1687) wherein he praised the Chinese gardens, which he had visited, for their intricate irregularity

Sir William Temple

10

Term made by Sir Temple to those parts 'where the beauty shall be great, but without any order...that shall be easily observed'

Sharawadgi

11

French term referring ti anything made by, or imitated from, the Chinese; popular motif for landscape and architectural furnishings during the 18th century in Europe and England

Chinoiserie

12

From a French word that means "rock work"; a term applied to a type of Renaissance ornament in which rocklike forms, scrolls, and shells are used together in a confusion of detail often without organic coherence but presenting a lavish display of decoration; especially popular in France, Germany, and Switzerland during the late 18th century

Rococo (Rocaille)

13

French expression for "object of art"; a small object of artistic value

Objet d'art

14

A very small village; a small cluster of houses in the country; in Britain, a village without a church of its own but belong to the parish of another town

Hamlet

15

The School springing from a relation to nature that had always been latent but now emerged from beneath the fashionable Italian and French classical overlays

The English School

16

The term to describe one of the attitudes of taste toward architecture and landscape gardening between 1785 and 1835; buildings and landscapes were to have the compositional qualities and informality of a painted picture

Picturesque

17

A French expression for "ornamental farm"; a type of picturesque, romantic rural landscape garden popular during the 18th century in England and on the continuent

Ferme ornee

18

(1685-1748) Described as 'the father of modern gardening' by Horace Walpole; Chiswick House, Middles as his first commission for his patron, the Earl of Burlington, in collaboration with Charles Bridgeman

William Kent

19

The garden designed by the banker, Henry Hoare, for himself; similar to Claude Lorraine's panting of the coast view of Delos with Aeneas

Gardens at Stourhead

20

A sunken fence or ditch

Ha-ha

21

To improve the agriculture economy in England, put vast tracts of once commonly held land into private hands, increasing the economic and political power of the landed gentry

Enclosure Acts of the Parliament

22

Chinese-themed textile, ceramics, wallpaper, and furniture

Chinoiserie

23

In landscape architecture, the manner of, or having the quality of, nature but contrived; consciously composed by human beings to look like a natural setting; popularized in the 16th-century England

Naturalesque

24

The quality of being like nature and not of human-made appearance; a carefully organized planting of indigenous plant materials

Naturalistic

25

Sham ruins, an architectural feature that were incorporated by William Kent in his landscapes; similar to elements seen in the paintings of Lourain and Poussin

Frabriques

26

The designers who designed the Stowe, responsible for the successive site plans with a record of changing garden design styles in the 18th century

Bridgeman and Wise
Kent
Brown

27

A hybrid style that became popular in France and Germany, when the French saw a connection between the Chinese garden and the English garden

Anglo-chinois

28

Estate grounds of George Washington; his foremost priority in laying out its grounds of his estate was the improvement of the farm lands; its modest, coherent plan reflects the values of a gentleman farmer

Mount Vernon, Virginia

29

Built around 1771 by Jefferson, as his private retreat, where he could pursue his studies of natural history and architecture; introduced a degree of the picturesque to 18th-century American gardens

Monticello, Virginia

30

Jefferson;s farm-estate which represented the artful science of Enlightenment; a 62-acre property reffed to as his "curtilage" or private sanctuary; a perfect marriage of architecture and landscape

Poplar Forest, Virginia

31

An English society in the 19th century, dominated by the middle class, who built smaller "suburban villas" around industrial centers, contrasted to Georgian society dominated by the upper class and their landscape gardens

Victorian society

32

A glass case that protected plants, displayed in the home from the poisonous fumes of gaslight; invented in the 19th century, as the Victorians were enthralled by the plethora of exotic plants being introduced to England; essentially miniature greenhouse

Wardian case

33

A naturalist, fern enthusiast, and medical doctor; developed a glass case for plant by accident

Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward

34

Published by Loudon from 1826 to 1843; a popular source of garden information for the middle-class, who sought advice from periodical rather than landscape designers

Gardener's Magazine

35

(1822) A compendium of historical styles and practices, collected from Loudon's travels abroad

Encyclopedia of Gardening

36

A style developed Loudon as a way for small property owners to enjoy the landscape; with four rates determined by Loudon based on acres

Gardenesque

37

An arboretum designed by Loudon, which opened to the public in 1840, as an educational and recreational garden; an 11-acre site designed with gardenesque principles

Derby Arboretum

38

A conservatory built by Paxton at Chatsworth in 1836," the largest glasshouse ever constructed at the time; with improved system by using cast iron and wood

"Great Sove" or Great Conservatory

39

A centerpiece of the London World's Fair of 1851 (Great Exhibition in Hyde Park), built by Paxton

Crystal Palace