Flashcards in Genetic engineering Deck (14):
To cut DNA at specific palindrom sequence, producing sticky ends. Can be used to make Recombinant DNA
To carry DNA in to cells and ensure replication: Plasmids, phages, cosmids
Reverse transcriptase in retrovirus
To copy from RNA → DNA
Role of the DNA ligase
production of new covalent bonds on the DNA strand. encircles the DNA double helix
What can carry small segments of desired DNA?
What is the name of virus which infects microbes?
What are certain plasmids containing small piece of bacteriophage?
RNA dependent DNA polymerase
What is the technique of genetic engineering?
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
What is needed for PCR?
• Small amount of DNA
• Designed primers (for both DNA strands) Deoxyribonucleotides
• DNA polymerase, heat stable (Termophilus aquaticus: Taq polymerase)
Steps of PCR method
•1.95oC: Denaturation of DNA, 2 strands are separated.
•2. 40-60oC: Designed primers bind to complementer DNA sequences.
•3.72oC: Taq polymerase synthetizes the other DNA strand.
•Cycles are repeated 25-35x:2,4,8,18, millions of DNA molecules are synthetized.
APPLICATION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING (GENE TRANSFER) Into microbes
"chemicalfactory”:hormones, vaccines etc.
APPLICATION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING (GENE TRANSFER) Into plants
to gain new phenotypes –Insect resistant crops, disease resistant potatoe, enzymes produced by crops.