Genetic engineering Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Genetic engineering Deck (14):
1

Restriction enonuclease

To cut DNA at specific palindrom sequence, producing sticky ends. Can be used to make Recombinant DNA

2

Vectors

To carry DNA in to cells and ensure replication: Plasmids, phages, cosmids

3

Reverse transcriptase in retrovirus

To copy from RNA → DNA

4

Role of the DNA ligase

production of new covalent bonds on the DNA strand. encircles the DNA double helix

5

What can carry small segments of desired DNA?

Plasmids

6

What is the name of virus which infects microbes?

bacteriophage

7

What are certain plasmids containing small piece of bacteriophage?

Cosmids

8

Reverse transcriptase

RNA dependent DNA polymerase

9

What is the technique of genetic engineering?

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

10

What is needed for PCR?

• Small amount of DNA
• Designed primers (for both DNA strands) Deoxyribonucleotides
• DNA polymerase, heat stable (Termophilus aquaticus: Taq polymerase)

11

Steps of PCR method

•1.95oC: Denaturation of DNA, 2 strands are separated.
•2. 40-60oC: Designed primers bind to complementer DNA sequences.
•3.72oC: Taq polymerase synthetizes the other DNA strand.
•Cycles are repeated 25-35x:2,4,8,18, millions of DNA molecules are synthetized.

12

APPLICATION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING (GENE TRANSFER) Into microbes

"chemicalfactory”:hormones, vaccines etc.

13

APPLICATION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING (GENE TRANSFER) Into plants

to gain new phenotypes –Insect resistant crops, disease resistant potatoe, enzymes produced by crops.

14

APPLICATION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING (GENE TRANSFER) Into eucaryotes

„chimere”production(new phenotype) – hormon production in cell cultures, put DNA into fertilized egg, put somatic cells into unfertilized egg (Dolly, 1996).