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Flashcards in Homeostasis Deck (15):
1

Isovolaemia

THE CONSTANCY OF THE VOLUME OF ECF

2

Dehydration

decreased volume of ECF = less than than 20%
(no drinking water, diarrhea, vomiting, increased sweating, etc)

3

Overhydration

increased volume of ECF = more than than 20%
(renal diseases, too much drinking, too much infusion, etc)

4

Hypovolaemia

decreased volume of blood plasma
(bleeding, shock, etc)

5

Hypervolaemia

increased volume of blood plasma
(cardiac, renal diseases, etc)

6

Oedema

increased volume of ISF
(cardiac decompensation, hepatic, renal diseases, starvation, allergic processes, inflammation, etc)

7

Isosmosis

THE CONSTANCY OF THE OSMOTIC PRESSURE (the force which prevents the osmotic movement) OF ECF

8

Hypertonic solution

E.g. 3% NaCl - RBC shrinks

9

Isotonic solution

0.9% NaCl - Shape of RBC does not change

10

Hypotonic solution

0.3% NaCl - RBC disrupts (hemolysis)

11

Isohydria

THE CONSTANCY OF THE pH OF ECF

12

pH of ECF

7.4

13

Acidosis/alkalosis

Between 7.35 and 7.0 = acidosis
Between 7.45 and 7.8 = alkalosis

14

Buffer system in ECF

BICARBONATE BUFFER SYSTEM:
-carbonic acid (H2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
-pKa=6.1

15

Buffer system in ICF

PHOSPHATE BUFFER SYSTEM:
-dihydrogen phosphate - H2PO4- and monohydrogen phosphate - HPO42-
-pKa =6.8
HEMOGLOBIN BUFFER SYSTEM:
-has several buffering groups per molecule (e.g. imidazole)
-different pKa values (6.5-7.8)