Flashcards in Lab 1 - Blood plasma Deck (27)
Role of blood?
Protect the homeostasis for the cells and tissues. Transport feeding materials, metabolities, hormones and enzymes.
What does blood consist of?
Fluid and a corpuscular part (red and white blood cells, platelets)
1. Centrifugation: corpuscular elements in bottom, upper yellow liquid is blood plasma (fibrogen +).
2. Stand: Plasma is squeezed out (fibronigen -)
What does the water solvent contain?
AA, TG, FFA, cholesterol, vitamins, proteins (enzymes- ALT, AST, AP)
Ingredients of blood plasma in mammals and their conc.
Na+-140, K+-5, Ca2+2.5, Mg2+1.0, CT-103, HCO3- -27, HPO42-/H2PO4 -1-1.5, glucose (monogastic) -5-6 and plasma proteins(albumins, globulins and enzymes) -60-80g/l.
In lower conc.: free amino acids, triglycerids, fatty acids, cholesterol and vitamins are also found in blood.
Most common methods in blood-plasma measuring
The acitivity of ALT-alanine aminotransferase, AST-aspargine aminotransferase and ALP-alkaline phosphatase
Types of homeostasis
Examination of the ion content of the blood plasma
The most omportant ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and the inorganic phaphate ions HPO42-/H2PO4-.
Isovolemia when decreasing/increasin ECF, blood and ISF
ISF: - / oedema
Number of solute particles per unit volume
How many osmol is 1 mol glucose, NaCl and blood plasma
-1 mol glucose–1 osmol
-1 mol NaCl–2 osmol
-Blood plasma: 300 mosmol (osmolarity of 9 g/l NaCl – physiological saline)
What happens with the isosmosis in a hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic sol.?
Hypertonic: 3%NaCl-RBC shrink
Isotonic: 0.9%NaCl-No change
Hypotonic: 0.3%Nacl-RBC disrupts
Def. on: Homeostasis, Isosmosis, Isovolemia, Isoionia, Isohydria
Homeostasis: internal environment.
Isovolemia: volume of ECF
Isosmosis: osmotic pressure in the ECF
Isoionia: conc. of ions in ECF
Isohydria: pH in the ECF
[H+] x [OH-] = ?
Neutral: [H+]=[OH-]=10^-7 mol/l
How to calculate pH?
Neutral, acidic, alkaline?
pH of the blood plasma?
–Neutral pH 7
–Acidic pH 7 [H+] ↓
-Blood plasma: 7.4(7.35-7.45)
Regulation of pH
–Kidney ↑ (HCO3- ↑)
–Intestine ↓ (HCO3- ↓)
–Lung ↑ (CO2 ↓)
Weak acid/base pairs
–H2CO3/HCO3 - EC
–H2PO4-/HPO42 - IC
–HbO2/Hb – blood
Buffer capacity def.
The amount (in mols or mmols) of monovalent strong acid or base which changes the pH of 1 l
buffer solution by 1 unit.
Study of blood plasma components
•Detection – qualtative
•Measurement – quantitative
Flame photometry def.
Detection/measurement of alkali and alkali-earth metals (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+).
How flame photometry works
Uses acetulen gas and compressed air. High temp.->burning. Atoms go into induced state → e- jump into a higher number of e- path. When return → loose energy → emit light
Measurement of coloured solutions
Transmission and absorbance
• Transmission: It/I0
• Absorbance: log(I0/It)
A special wavelength where the absorbtion of the solution is maximal
-Absorbance depends only on the concentration.
-But absorbance of cuvette, solvent and everything else in the solvent has to be taken into consideration too.
-Need a blank sample
• Alkaline phosphatase
• Catalisators of certain chem. R
– E – enzyme
– S – substate
– P – product