Lab 1 - Blood plasma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 1 - Blood plasma Deck (27):
1

Role of blood?

Protect the homeostasis for the cells and tissues. Transport feeding materials, metabolities, hormones and enzymes.

2

What does blood consist of?

Fluid and a corpuscular part (red and white blood cells, platelets)

3

Separation methods

1. Centrifugation: corpuscular elements in bottom, upper yellow liquid is blood plasma (fibrogen +).
2. Stand: Plasma is squeezed out (fibronigen -)

4

What does the water solvent contain?

AA, TG, FFA, cholesterol, vitamins, proteins (enzymes- ALT, AST, AP)

5

Ingredients of blood plasma in mammals and their conc.

Na+-140, K+-5, Ca2+2.5, Mg2+1.0, CT-103, HCO3- -27, HPO42-/H2PO4 -1-1.5, glucose (monogastic) -5-6 and plasma proteins(albumins, globulins and enzymes) -60-80g/l.
In lower conc.: free amino acids, triglycerids, fatty acids, cholesterol and vitamins are also found in blood.

6

Most common methods in blood-plasma measuring

The acitivity of ALT-alanine aminotransferase, AST-aspargine aminotransferase and ALP-alkaline phosphatase

7

Types of homeostasis

-Isovoleamia
-Isoosmosis
-Isoionia
-Isohydria
-(Isothermia)

8

Examination of the ion content of the blood plasma

The most omportant ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and the inorganic phaphate ions HPO42-/H2PO4-.

9

Isovolemia when decreasing/increasin ECF, blood and ISF

ECF: dehydration/hyperhydration
Blood: hypovolaemia/hypervolaemia
ISF: - / oedema

10

Osmolarity def.

Number of solute particles per unit volume

11

How many osmol is 1 mol glucose, NaCl and blood plasma

-1 mol glucose–1 osmol
-1 mol NaCl–2 osmol
-Blood plasma: 300 mosmol (osmolarity of 9 g/l NaCl – physiological saline)

12

What happens with the isosmosis in a hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic sol.?

Hypertonic: 3%NaCl-RBC shrink
Isotonic: 0.9%NaCl-No change
Hypotonic: 0.3%Nacl-RBC disrupts

13

Def. on: Homeostasis, Isosmosis, Isovolemia, Isoionia, Isohydria

Constancy of...
Homeostasis: internal environment.
Isovolemia: volume of ECF
Isosmosis: osmotic pressure in the ECF
Isoionia: conc. of ions in ECF
Isohydria: pH in the ECF

14

[H+] x [OH-] = ?
Neutral?

10^-14 mol/l
Neutral: [H+]=[OH-]=10^-7 mol/l

15

How to calculate pH?
Neutral, acidic, alkaline?
pH of the blood plasma?

-log[H+]
–Neutral pH 7
–Acidic pH 7 [H+] ↓
-Blood plasma: 7.4(7.35-7.45)

16

Regulation of pH

–Kidney ↑ (HCO3- ↑)
–Intestine ↓ (HCO3- ↓)
–Lung ↑ (CO2 ↓)
–Buffer systems

17

Buffer systems

Weak acid/base pairs
–H2CO3/HCO3 - EC
–H2PO4-/HPO42 - IC
–HbO2/Hb – blood

18

Buffer capacity def.

The amount (in mols or mmols) of monovalent strong acid or base which changes the pH of 1 l
buffer solution by 1 unit.

19

Study of blood plasma components

•Detection – qualtative
•Measurement – quantitative

20

Flame photometry def.

Detection/measurement of alkali and alkali-earth metals (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+).

21

How flame photometry works

Uses acetulen gas and compressed air. High temp.->burning. Atoms go into induced state → e- jump into a higher number of e- path. When return → loose energy → emit light

22

Spectrophotometry def.

Measurement of coloured solutions

23

Transmission and absorbance

• Transmission: It/I0
• Absorbance: log(I0/It)

24

Absorption maximum

A special wavelength where the absorbtion of the solution is maximal

25

Spectophotometry "rules"

-Absorbance depends only on the concentration.
-But absorbance of cuvette, solvent and everything else in the solvent has to be taken into consideration too.
-Need a blank sample
-Absorbance->conc.

26

Enzymes

• Alkaline phosphatase
• Catalisators of certain chem. R
• E+S→ES→EP→E+P
– E – enzyme
– S – substate
– P – product

27

Enzyme activity

– Decrease of the substrate
– Increase of the product