Flashcards in Genetics Deck (20):
Law of Independent Assortment
Allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. The inheritance of one gene does not affect the inheritance of another gene.
Occurs when multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant.
Example: ABO blood groups
A form of inheritance in which one allele is not completely expressed over its paired allele. Formation of intermediate phenotypes.
Examples: Snapdragons, Skin and Eye Colors
The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that result in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction. Occurs between prophase I and metaphase I.
The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I (anaphase I) or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II (anaphase II).
Example: Down Syndrome
The linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides be coded instructions for synthesis of RNA, which, when translated into protein, leads to the expression of hereditary character.
An alternative form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome.
The genetic makeup of an organism.
The physical manifestation of an organisms genetic makeup.
Two copies of the same dominant allele present within an organism.
Two copies of the same recessive allele present within an organism.
A pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive.
When the dominant allele is completely expressed over the recessive allele. The recessive allele remains silent.
Example: Flowers in Mendel's Pea Plants
The proportion of a population with a given genotype who express the phenotype.
The substitution of one nucleotide for another. Includes silent mutation, missense mutation, and nonsense mutation.
Occurs when the change in the nucleotide had no effect on the final protein synthesized from the gene.
Occurs when the change in the nucleotide results in substituting one amino acid for another in the final protein synthesized from the gene.
Occurs when the change in the nucleotide results in substituting a premature stop codon for an amino acid in the final protein synthesized.
Occurs when nucleotides are inserted into or deleted from the genome resulting in either changes in the amino acid sequence or premature truncation of the protein. Includes deletion and insertion mutations.